1 Americans love television talk shows. They love to hear celebrities talk about their personal lives before a national audience. And they love to watch people with different views get into heated debates. Larry King obviously knows what audiences want. That's why Americans love to watch his show, Larry King Live. Celebrities and politicians talk with King about their lives, troubles, plans and politics. And Americans enjoy watching this ordinary guy ask hard-hitting questions of the world's most prominent people.
妙语点睛 我们看到，这段话里有三处省去to的不定式：hear celebrities talk, watch people with different views get, watching this ordinary guy ask。这里没有说to talk, to get和to ask，原因就是因为这三个补足语都是用在了感觉动词hear, watch和watching后面。
2 The mother makes her son play the violin three hours a day.
3 The minister had his secretaries arrange a press conference.
4 The teacher lets us write a composition every week.
5 I heard him quarrel with his wife last night.
6 I saw a man enter the shop.
A man was seen to enter the shop.
另外，在help, listen to, look at后面可用to，也可不用to。比如：
7 Would you like to listen to me read the poem?
8 The teacher will help you（to）study English well.
这些结构包括：had better, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but等。
1 I cannot but admire his courage.
2 We might as well put up here for tonight.
3 It all started so innocently that warm June night, when I first met you, you looked so beautiful and lovely I couldn't help but fall in love with you, even though we both agreed our worlds were far apart, and could never be one.
二、在more than, rather than, other than, than后面加不带to的不定式
4 Teachers do much more than impart knowledge. They are forces in young lives.
5 I would rather go naked than wear furs.
6 Rather than wait anymore, I decided to go home by taxi.
7 Rather than go on with his work, he went home.
8 No one could do other than admire it.
9 To my great surprise, she preferred to give herself up rather than hide herself.
10 In the course of a day students do far more than just attend classes.
三、在do nothing/anything/everything but do句型中
在这个句型里关键是因为前面有do，所以but后面的不定式要省去to，因此说成but do，而不是but to do*。请比较：
11 1) I have nothing to do but wait.
2) I have no choice but to wait.
12 He will do anything but give in.
13 He needs nothing but to succeed.
14 That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but to call in the police.
15 Having missed that last bus, Bob had no alternative but to take a taxi home though he did not like the idea.
16 Saddam Hussein has been executed. All his execution do is stir up a real vendetta.
妙语点睛 这里all作主语，后面是定语从句his execution do，此时is的后面直接用stir而不是to stir*。这里stir up a real vendetta是解释前面的do的精确含义的，相当于一个强调句型。
17 Husband: I have a very demanding job. I'm tired when I get home.
Wife: I also have a demanding job, but I'm expected to come home from the office and cook, care for the children and clean the house. All you do is sit and watch television and complain about how tired you are.
妙语点睛 我们看到，这里没有说is to sit and watch*，而是省去了to。
18 No mountain's too high for you to climb. All you have to do is have some climbing faith. No river's too wide for you to make it across. All you have to do is believe it when you pray.
19 We can't make everyone love us. All we can do is let ourselves be loved.
妙语点睛 这里其实共有三处to被省去：一是make后面的love，不是to love；二是is后面的let，不是to let；三是let后面的be loved，不是to be loved。
在特殊疑问词中，只有why后面要接省去to的不定式。其中，肯定形式的Why do sth.表示“为什么要做某事呢？”含有责怪之意，通常表明做某事是无意义或愚蠢的。请看例句：
20 A: I really hate to write the essay Professor Smith assigned us.
B: Why bother then?
妙语点睛 不能说Why to bother then?*
21 Why pay to see that movie, since you can see it on TV for nothing?
而否定形式的Why not do sth.?则通常表示建议，在口语中非常常用。比如：
22 Why not take a holiday?
具体来说，两个动词由and, or, but等词连接时，为了避免重复而把连词后面的不定式的to省去。比如：
23 I'd like to lie down and (to) go to sleep.
24 Do you want to have lunch now or (to) wait till later?
25 I haven't decided whether to go home or (to) stay at school during the coming summer vacation.
26 The need to love and to be loved seems universal. Maybe this is one trait that separates human beings from other animals.
妙语点睛 这里的to love与to be loved之间显然有强调对比之意，所以and后面的不定式保留了to。
27 It is the greatest happiness on earth to love and to be loved.
28 I came not to praise, but to scold you.
29 To play fair is as important as to play well.
30 He likes to be respected, not to respect others.
这些搭配包括：make do（设法应付，对付），make believe（假装），let drop（使……掉下来），let fall（让……倒下），let fly（放飞），let slip（放走，错失机会），let go of（松开），hear say（听说），leave go of（放走）等等。请看例句：
31 Let's make believe we are now on a deserted island.
32 Hollywood is the land of make-believe. Actors pretend they're someone else, and when the movie's finished, the producers make believe it's good.
1. The boy was made (sing) the song once again.
2. Don't make children (work) too hard.
3. They would rather (die) than (surrender).
4. He could not choose but (love) her.
5. She could do nothing but (change) her name under the circumstances.
6. There was nothing to do except (escape).
7. He has no alternative but (go) and ask his sister for help.
8. If he is not willing to be with you, why (not, ask) somebody else?
9. Since he is only a kid, why (make) fun of him?
10. A: What can you see in a park?
B: I can see birds (fly) in the sky and sometimes I can see people (do) shadowboxing.
A: Do you hear anything in the park?
B: Yes, I can hear people (chat) here and there and sometimes I can hear young people (speak) English at the English corner.
11. Henry made his little brother the dishes for him.
B. to wash
12. A: Did you translate it?
B: No, I a friend to do it.
13. They are going to have the serviceman an electric fan in the office tomorrow.
B. to install
C. to be installed
14. The minister had his secretaries a press conference.
B. to arrange
15. To my great surprise, she preferred to give herself up herself.
A. than hiding
B. rather than to hide
C. to hiding
D. rather than hide
16. In the course of a day students do far more than just classes.
C. to attend
17. That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but the police.
A. called in
B. calling in
C. call in
D. to call in
18. Having missed that last bus, Bob had no alternative a taxi home though he did not like the idea. (CET-4)
A. but to take
B. take to but
C. to but take
D. to take but
19. She could do nothing but her name under the circumstances.
A. to change
D. to be changed
读者可以花两周的时间来读完本章内容以及做完所有的练习。这些时间可以分为两大部分：大部分时间放在不定式作成分的内容方面，另一部分时间用来集中研究不定式的时态和语态问题。其中应该把“名词+to do”和“形容词+to do”两部分内容结合起来分析比较，重点放在它们的逻辑语义关系上，这可以花五天的时间来认真研究、总结、反复思考并进行相应的练习。其他成分的内容可以花五天时间来学习。最后一部分时间分配到不定式的时态和语态上，重点是完成式to have done的意义。
1. any aspect of society, the sociologist must determine the laws influencing human behavior in social contexts.
B. To explain
C. One explains
D. The explanation of
2. as a masterpiece, a work of art must transcend the ideals of the period in which it was created.
A. To rank
B. The ranking
C. To be ranked
D. For being ranked
3. the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, engineers are creating exotic new metallic substances.
B. Being met are
C. To meet
D. They are meeting
4. On Saturday afternoon, Mrs. Green went to the market, some bananas and visited her cousin.
C. to buy
5. We will have to get the Dean this form.
A. to sign
6. She is having her car this week.
A. to repair
7. The doctor had the patient on at once.
C. to operate
8. My sister's professor had her her paper many times before allowing her to present it to the committee.
B. to rewrite
9. The teacher had the students their homework every day.
B. to do
10. We're leaving at six o'clock in the morning, and hope to most of the journey by lunch time.
A. be doing
B. have done
C. have been done
11. A membership card authorizes the club's facilities of a period of 12 months.
A. the holder using
B. the holder's use
C. the holder to use
D. the holder uses
12. He asked since he had been chairman for seven years.
A. not to have been re-elected
B. to be not re-elected
C. not to be re-elected
D. to have not been re-elected
13. The police were tracking the criminal who was said in a nearby wood.
A. have hidden
B. to be hiding
C. to hiding
D. to hide
14. At the Seventh International Ballet Competitions, Ferando Bujones won the first gold medal ever to a United States male dancer.
A. to be awarded
B. to award
C. that awards
D. should be awarding
15. "I was arguing with him about our plan just now."
"Why with him? He'll never change his mind."
C. to argue
D. you argue
16. It is extremely important for an engineer to know a computer.
B. to use
C. how to use
17. The ancient Egyptians are supposed rockets to the moon.
A. to send
B. to be sending
C. to have sent
D. to have been sending
18. He prefers to stay here go home.
A. than to
B. rather than
C. rather than to
19. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning.
A. it is possible
B. it possible
D. them possible
20. I should very much like to have gone to the party, but I .
A. was not invited
B. am not invited
C. shall not be invited
D. am not being invited
21. All too often, women complain that they're educated as equals, only to go out into the workforce as inferiors.
A. to treat
B. to be treated
C. be treated
22. After twenty years abroad, William came back only his hometown severely damaged in an earthquake.
B. to find
C. was finding
D. was to find
23. They were believed the problem beforehand.
A. to discuss
B. in discussing
C. to have discussed
D. to have been discussed
24. money in such a dishonest way, he would beg in the streets.
A. Rather than getting
B. Rather than to get
C. Rather than get
D. More than get
25. He came all the way to help her that she drowned herself in a well.
A. only to find
B. to find
C. in order to find
D. so as to find
26. He preferred with that Managing Editor.
A. not to identifying
B. identify himself
D. not to identify himself
27. Caught in the act, he had no alternative but
D. to confess
28. It is heartening to see millions who had nothing but a record of misery and hunger to improve their life.
A. having had the chance
B. had the chance
C. to have the chance
D. have the chance
29. The girl tried many times to sneak across the border to a neighboring country, each time.
A. having been caught
B. always being caught
C. had been caught
D. only to be caught
30. I experienced having students a thousand new words in a week.
A. considering less talented to remember
B. considered less talented remember
C. considering less talented remember
D. considered less talented to remember
31. The party at my house, but the central heating broke down, and we had to have it at John's place.
A. would be
B. have been
C. was to be
D. was to have been
32. For the government, the challenge the reform to the end.
A. is carry out
B. is to carry out
C. is for carrying out
D. is to carrying out
33. The Cubists were concerned with how a given subject from different points of view simultaneously.
B. to represent
C. do they represent
34. The parents scolded the child and made her promise again.
A. never to do that
B. what to do never
C. that never to do that
D. so never to do that
35. I spoke to the kid kindly him.
A. not to frighten
B. so as not to frighten
C. in order to not frighten
D. for not frightening
36. The child may be able to attain his immediate goal that his method brings criticism from people who observe him.
A. only to find
B. only find
C. only finding
D. only have found
37. The student continued to do mischief in class even though his teacher repeatedly told him .
A. not doing
C. not to
38. The teacher doesn't allow on the exam.
A. his students to cheat
B. his students' cheating
C. to cheat
D. his students cheat
39. The total influence of literature upon the course of human history .
A. is difficult to evaluate
B. is difficult to evaluate it
C. difficult to evaluate it
D. it is difficult to evaluate
40. Those naughty boys were caught flowers in the garden again.
A. to steal
C. to have stolen
D. having stolen
41. Much of the forest, along with the farmland, near the Mount Saint Helens volcano, appears to at the time of the eruption.
A. be destroying
B. have been destroying
C. be destroyed
D. have been destroyed
42. By the first decade of the 21st century, international commercial air traffic is expected vastly beyond today's levels.
A. to have extended
B. to be extending
C. to extend
D. to be extended
43. A Dream of the Red Chamber is said into dozens of languages in the last decade.
A. to have been translated
B. to translate
C. to be translated
D. to have translated
44. In 1938 Pearl S. Buck became the first American woman the Nobel Prize for Literature.
C. to receive
D. she received
45. The first explorer California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1825.
A. that he reached
B. to reach
D. reaching it
46. If you still don't have an answer from the University of New York, why call the admission office?
A. you don't
B. not to
47. I'd rather have a room of my own, however small it is, than a room with someone else.
A. to share
B. to have shared
48. Mrs. Brown is supposed for Italy last week.
A. to have left
B. to be leaving
C. to leave
D. to have been left
49. For nearly four hours they waited for the decision, only to come again next day.
A. they were told
B. to be told
C. to tell
D. being told
50. In order to a passport, one must either present legal documents or call a witness to give evidence concerning one's identity.
A. be issued
C. have issue
D. have been issued
51. As luck would have it, my teacher happened to America when an earthquake occurred in his native place.
B. have visited
C. be visiting
D. have been visiting
52. If we allow our imagination by known research, our prophecies need not be sheer fantasy.
B. be guided
C. to be guided
D. being guided
53. During the exam, the school authorities won't allow freely.
A. to talk
D. to be talking
54. Since you changed lanes without signaling, you are as much for the accident as us.
A. to be blamed
B. to blame
55. In order that (A) save the California condor from (B) extinction, a group of federal, local (C), and private organizations initiated a rescue (D) program.
56. Because of (A) the recent accidents, our parents forbid me from swimming (B) in the river unless (C) someone agrees to watch over (D) us.
57. Those part-time students expected to offer (A) some jobs on (B) campus during (C) the coming (D) summer vacation.
58. A conductor uses signals and gestures to let (A) the musicians to know (B) when to play (C) various parts of a composition (D).
59. Ogden Nash often extended (A) sentences over (B) several lines produce (C) surprising (D) and comical rhymes.
60. For thousands of years, people have used (A) some kind (B) of refrigeration cooling (C) beverages and preserve edibles (D).
61. The fragrant leaves (A) of the laurel plant to sell (B) commercially as bay leaves and are used for (C) seasoning foods (D).
62. As secretary (A) of transportation from 1975 to 1977, William Coleman worked to help (B) the bankrupt railroads in the northeastern United States solved (C) their financial (D) problems.
There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language--all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.
By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.
In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we're shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we're slow to adapt to change or that we're not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.
These feelings of insecurity and self-doubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.