目录
写在前面 序言 第一章 名词从句 1.1 名词从句的本质 1.1.1 名词从句的本质:三种句子充当四种成分 1.1.2 引导名词从句的常用连词 1.2 主语从句 1.2.1 that引导的主语从句 1.2.2 whether及连接代词或连接副词引导的主语从句 1.2.3 because引导的主语从句 1.3 宾语从句 1.3.1 在及物动词后作宾语 1.3.2 在双宾动词后作直接宾语 1.3.3 在双宾动词后作间接宾语 1.3.4 在介词后作宾语 1.3.5 宾语从句后置 1.3.6 that在宾语从句中省略的问题 1.4 表语从句 1.5 同位语从句 1.5.1 同位语从句句型(一):名词+that+陈述句 1.5.2 同位语从句句型(二):名词+定语+that+陈述句 1.5.3 同位语从句句型(三):名词+谓语+that+陈述句 1.6 从句的“嵌套结构” 1.6.1 名词从句的“嵌套结构” 1.6.2 连词与动词的配比原则 第二章 定语从句 2.1 先行词的结构特点 2.1.1 先行词是一个词 2.1.2 先行词是一个短语 2.1.3 先行词是一个分句 2.1.4 先行词是一个完整的句子 2.2 先行词的位置特点 2.2.1 先行词+其他定语+定语从句 2.2.2 先行词+状语+定语从句 2.2.3 作主语的先行词+谓语部分+定语从句 2.3 如何判断先行词 2.4 与先行词有关的考点 2.4.1 先行词的选择 2.4.2 关系词的翻译 2.4.3 关系词的选择 2.4.4 定语从句中的主谓一致问题 2.5 关系代词which/that/who/whom 2.6 关系代词whose 2.7 介词+关系代词 2.7.1 看从句选介词 2.7.2 看先行词选介词 2.7.3 看句义选介词 2.7.4 表示所属关系或部分与整体的关系时用介词of 2.7.5 固定的介宾结构 2.7.6 定语从句的倒装结构 2.7.7 “介词+关系代词+to do”结构 2.8 关系代词as 2.8.1 as引导非限定性定语从句 2.8.2 as引导限定性定语从句 2.9 关系代词than 2.10 关系代词but 2.11 缩合关系代词what 2.11.1 使用关系词what的前提:what的前面不能有先行词 2.11.2 what单独使用,即其后面可以不接名词 2.11.3 what的后面可以接名词 2.11.4 what用在一些固定结构中 2.12 关系副词when 2.12.1 用when引导定语从句,其先行词必须是表示时间的名词 2.12.2 先行词表示时间时,不一定都用when引导定语从句 2.12.3 如何区分when引导的定语从句与when引导的时间状语从句 2.13 关系副词where 2.13.1 用where引导定语从句,其先行词通常是表示地点的名词 2.13.2 先行词表示地点,不一定都用where引导定语从句 2.13.3 where引导定语从句,先行词可以是含有地点意义的其他各种名词 2.13.4 如何区分where引导的地点状语从句和定语从句 2.14 关系副词why 2.15 关系副词有how吗? 2.16 关系词后带有插入语的定语从句 2.16.1 定语从句的关系词后面插入一个主谓结构 2.16.2 定语从句的关系词后面插入一个其他成分 2.17 并列定语从句 2.18 双层定语从句 第三章 状语从句 3.1 状语从句的本质 3.2 状语从句的省略 3.3 时间状语从句 3.3.1 时间连词when的用法特点 3.3.2 时间连词while的用法特点 3.3.3 时间连词as的用法特点 3.3.4 时间连词before的用法特点 3.3.5 时间连词after的用法特点 3.3.6 时间连词since的用法特点 3.3.7 时间连词until的用法特点 3.3.8 表示“一……就……”的结构 3.3.9 时间连词by the time的用法特点 3.3.10 一些表示时间的名词短语引导的时间状语从句 3.4 地点状语从句 3.5 原因状语从句 3.5.1 常见连词的用法 3.5.2 用介词表示因果关系 3.5.3 其他复合连词表示原因 3.5.4 because的否定转移 3.6 目的状语从句 3.6.1 常见连词的用法 3.6.2 目的状语从句的简化 3.6.3 其他连词的用法 3.7 结果状语从句 3.7.1 常见连词的用法 3.7.2 比较so与such的区别 3.7.3 结果状语从句的简化 3.7.4 结果状语从句的倒装 3.7.5 其他短语连接的结果状语从句 3.8 条件状语从句 3.8.1 常见连词的用法 3.8.2 only if与if only 3.8.3 must/have to do...if...be to do结构 3.8.4 其他条件从句的连词 3.8.5 其他表示条件意味的句型 3.9 让步状语从句 3.9.1 常见连词的用法 3.9.2 表示让步转折关系的介词和副词 3.9.3 置于句首的while一般表示“尽管” 3.9.4 no matter wh- 3.9.5 as引导的倒装句表示让步 3.9.6 as/so+形容词+as +主谓结构,放在句首表示让步 3.9.7 句首用be的倒装句表示让步 3.10 比较状语从句 3.10.1 连词as 的基本用法 3.10.2 as句型一:as much as结构 3.10.3 as句型二:not so much...as结构 3.10.4 as句型三:(just) as..., so结构 3.10.5 连词than的基本用法 3.10.6 no more...than结构 3.10.7 表示倍数比较的三种句型结构 3.10.8 the more..., the more结构 3.10.9 A is to B what/as C is to D结构 3.11 方式状语从句 第四章 不定式 4.1 非谓语动词概述 4.2 不定式的作用(一):作主语(It + to do) 4.2.1 不定式放在句首作主语 4.2.2 不定式放在句末作主语 4.3 不定式的作用(二):作宾语(动词+to do) 4.3.1 结构一:动词+to do 4.3.2 结构二:动词+疑问词+to do 4.3.3 结构三:动词+it+宾语补足语+to do 4.4 不定式的作用(三):作宾语补足语(动词+宾语+to do) 4.5 不定式的作用(四):作定语(名词+ to do) 4.5.1 宾语关系 4.5.2 主语关系 4.5.3 同位语关系 4.5.4 状语关系 4.5.5 补语关系 4.6 不定式的作用(五):形容词+to do 4.6.1 宾语关系(一):He is interesting to listen to. 4.6.2 宾语关系(二):The book is interesting to buy. 4.6.3 主语关系(一):He is kind to help us. 4.6.4 主语关系(二):He is glad to help us. 4.6.5 主语关系(三):He is slow to react. 4.7 不定式的作用(六):作状语 4.7.1 目的状语 4.7.2 结果状语 4.7.3 条件状语 4.7.4 原因状语 4.8 不定式的作用(七):独立使用的不定式 4.8.1 不定式作独立成分 4.8.2 不定式引导独立的句子 4.9 不定式的逻辑主语 4.9.1 何谓逻辑主语 4.9.2 不定式逻辑主语的构成(一):for+名词或代词+to do 4.9.3 不定式逻辑主语的构成(二):of sb. to do 4.10 不定式的时态和语态(一):被动式(to be done) 4.10.1 不定式时态/语态简介 4.10.2 被动不定式 4.10.3 双重被动式 4.11 不定式的时态和语态(二):完成式(to have done) 4.11.1 表示在谓语动作之前发生的动作 4.11.2 表示“非真实的”过去 4.11.3 偶尔表示将来的动作 4.12 不定式的时态和语态(三):进行式(to be doing) 4.13 不定式的时态和语态(四):完成进行式(to have been doing) 4.14 省去to的不定式 4.14.1 在某些动词的复合宾语中 4.14.2 在特定的句型结构中 第五章 动名词 5.1 动名词的作用(一):作主语 5.1.1 动名词位于句首作主语 5.1.2 动名词位于句末作主语 5.2 动名词的作用(二):作宾语 5.2.1 在动词后面作宾语 5.2.2 在介词后面作宾语 5.2.3 在特定的句型中作宾语 5.3 动名词的作用(三):作表语 5.4 动名词的作用(四):作定语 5.5 动名词的逻辑主语 5.5.1 动名词复合结构的构成 5.5.2 所有格还是普通格? 5.5.3 动名词复合结构的用法 5.6 动名词的时态和语态(一):被动式(being done) 5.6.1 动名词的时态和语态概述 5.6.2 动名词的被动式 5.6.3 主动形式表示被动意思 5.7 动名词的时态和语态(二):完成式(having done) 5.7.1 动名词的完成主动式 5.7.2 动名词的完成被动式 5.8 there be 的不定式与动名词形式 5.8.1 there be的动名词形式 5.8.2 here be的不定式形式 第六章 分词 6.1 分词的意义 6.1.1 引言:一个真实的故事 6.1.2 现在分词的意义 6.1.3 过去分词的意义 6.2 分词的作用(一):状语 6.2.1 主语一致:单独的分词(短语)作状语 6.2.2 独立分词结构(一):“名词+分词”作状语 6.2.3 独立分词结构(二):“with+名词+分词”作状语 6.2.4 固定结构 6.2.5 分词作状语的意义 6.3 分词的作用(二):定语 6.3.1 单个分词作定语要前置 6.3.2 分词短语作定语要后置 6.3.3 后置定语的三种被动结构 6.4 分词的作用(三):补足语 6.4.1 分词在感觉动词后充当宾语补足语 6.4.2 作补足语的分词与不定式的区别 6.5 分词作成分要注意的问题 6.5.1 定语还是状语? 6.5.2 不能用作定语的分词结构 6.5.3 不能用作状语的分词结构 6.6 分词的完成式 6.6.1 一般式还是完成式? 6.6.2 何时该用完成式? 6.7 分词的用法总结 6.7.1 各种分词形式总结 6.7.2 如何正确使用分词? 6.8 分词构成的复合形容词 6.8.1 外部关系与内部关系 6.8.2 现在分词构成的复合形容词 6.8.3 过去分词构成的复合形容词 6.8.4 其他构成的复合形容词 第七章 从句与非谓语 7.1 名词从句的简化 7.1.1 名词从句与动名词 7.1.2 名词从句与不定式 7.2 定语从句的简化 7.2.1 定语从句如何才可能简化为短语 7.2.2 定语从句与短语 7.2.3 定语从句与分词 7.2.4 定语从句与不定式 7.3 状语从句的简化 7.3.1 状语从句与分词 7.3.2 状语从句与不定式 附录 答案解析

高级英语语法

英语高级语法教程,大学生英语语法

4.14 省去to的不定式

我们知道,不定式是由小品词to加一个动词构成的,即to do,然后在句中充当各种成分。不过有时这个小品词to可以省去,甚至是必须省去。本节就对省去to的不定式进行总结。

4.14.1 在某些动词的复合宾语中

最常见的不定式需要省去to的情况是出现在某些动词的宾语补足语中。这样的动词主要包括两类:

 
  1. 感觉动词(perceptional verb):see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe
  2. 使役动词(causative verb):let, make, have

我们先来看下面这篇短文:

1 Americans love television talk shows. They love to hear celebrities talk about their personal lives before a national audience. And they love to watch people with different views get into heated debates. Larry King obviously knows what audiences want. That's why Americans love to watch his show, Larry King Live. Celebrities and politicians talk with King about their lives, troubles, plans and politics. And Americans enjoy watching this ordinary guy ask hard-hitting questions of the world's most prominent people.

妙语点睛 我们看到,这段话里有三处省去to的不定式:hear celebrities talk, watch people with different views get, watching this ordinary guy ask。这里没有说to talk, to get和to ask,原因就是因为这三个补足语都是用在了感觉动词hear, watch和watching后面。

精品译文 美国人喜欢看电视脱口秀节目,因为他们喜欢听名人们在全国电视观众面前谈论自己的私生活,他们还喜欢看人们因为观点不同而彼此激烈地争论交锋。拉里·金显然明白观众们的所需,这就是为什么美国观众爱看他的直播电视脱口秀节目《拉里·金在线》。在节目中,名人和政治家们与金谈论他们的生活、困难、计划和政治。美国观众非常热衷于看到这名普通的主持人对那些世界的知名人士提出刁钻的问题。

再比如下面这些例句:

2 The mother makes her son play the violin three hours a day.

精品译文 这个母亲让她儿子每天练习三个小时的小提琴。

3 The minister had his secretaries arrange a press conference.

精品译文 部长让他的秘书安排一次新闻发布会。

4 The teacher lets us write a composition every week.

精品译文 老师让我们每周写一篇作文。

5 I heard him quarrel with his wife last night.

精品译文 我听到他昨晚与妻子吵架。

6 I saw a man enter the shop.

精品译文 我看到一个人进了商店。

注意,上述谓语动词若转换为被动结构时,其后的不定式需加to。比如:

A man was seen to enter the shop.

另外,在help, listen to, look at后面可用to,也可不用to。比如:

7 Would you like to listen to me read the poem?

精品译文 你想听我读这首诗吗?

8 The teacher will help you(tostudy English well.

精品译文 老师会帮你学好英语。

4.14.2 在特定的句型结构中

一、在一些短语结构中

这些结构包括:had better, would rather, would sooner, would just as soon, might (just) as well, cannot but, cannot choose but, cannot help but等。

1 I cannot but admire his courage.

精品译文 我不得不敬佩他的勇气。

2 We might as well put up here for tonight.

精品译文 今晚我们不妨就在这里过夜。

3 It all started so innocently that warm June night, when I first met you, you looked so beautiful and lovely I couldn't help but fall in love with you, even though we both agreed our worlds were far apart, and could never be one.

精品译文 在那个温暖的6月的晚上,当时我第一次见到你,一切就悄然发生了。当时你看起来是那么美,那么可爱,我情不自禁地坠入情网,即使我们俩都知道,我们的世界完全不同,永远无法相交。

二、在more than, rather than, other than, than后面加不带to的不定式

这些句型中的than后面一般不接to do,而直接用动词原形。请看例句:

4 Teachers do much more than impart knowledge. They are forces in young lives.

妙语点睛 这是布什总统地夫人劳拉(Laura)对老师的评价。她自己也曾经是一名教师。这句话地意思相当于韩愈的那个名句:“师者,传道,授业,解惑也”。

精品译文 老师不只是授业解惑,他们还是年轻生命的力量源泉。

5 I would rather go naked than wear furs.

精品译文 我宁愿裸体,也不愿穿动物毛皮。

6 Rather than wait anymore, I decided to go home by taxi.

精品译文 我决定打车回家,而不想再等下去了。

7 Rather than go on with his work, he went home.

精品译文 他回家了,不再继续工作。

8 No one could do other than admire it.

精品译文 大家都很推崇它。

9 To my great surprise, she preferred to give herself up rather than hide herself.

精品译文 她宁愿选择投降而不躲藏起来,这令我大吃一惊。

10 In the course of a day students do far more than just attend classes.

精品译文 一天的课程中,学生们除了上课还要做其他很多事情。

三、在do nothing/anything/everything but do句型中

在这个句型里关键是因为前面有do,所以but后面的不定式要省去to,因此说成but do,而不是but to do*。请比较:

11 1) I have nothing to do but wait.

2) I have no choice but to wait.

妙语点睛 在例句1)中,因为but前面有do,所以wait前面省去to。在例句2)中,因为but前面没有do,所以wait前面保留to。

精品译文 我没办法,只好等。

12 He will do anything but give in.

精品译文 他决不会屈服。

再比如,下面的句中因为没有do,所以but后面都保留了to:

13 He needs nothing but to succeed.

精品译文 他要的只是成功。

14 That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but to call in the police.

精品译文 情况太严重了,我只有打电话报警。

15 Having missed that last bus, Bob had no alternative but to take a taxi home though he did not like the idea.

精品译文 由于错过了最后一班公共汽车,鲍勃只好打车回家,虽然他并不愿意这样。

还有,对于解释do的精确含义的主语从句或者定语从句的句子,在主句谓语be动词后直接加do,而不是to do。萨达姆是在2006年12月30日星期六上午11点被处决的。谈到他被处死,媒体上评论说:

16 Saddam Hussein has been executed. All his execution do is stir up a real vendetta.

妙语点睛 这里all作主语,后面是定语从句his execution do,此时is的后面直接用stir而不是to stir*。这里stir up a real vendetta是解释前面的do的精确含义的,相当于一个强调句型。

精品译文 萨达姆·侯赛因已经被处决了。他的被处死只能激起更深的仇恨。

我们再看看下面这对夫妻的争执:

17 Husband: I have a very demanding job. I'm tired when I get home.

Wife: I also have a demanding job, but I'm expected to come home from the office and cook, care for the children and clean the house. All you do is sit and watch television and complain about how tired you are.

妙语点睛 我们看到,这里没有说is to sit and watch*,而是省去了to。

精品译文 丈夫:我的工作压力很大,所以下班回家后我很累。

妻子:我的工作压力也不小,可是我下班回家后还得做饭、照顾孩子、收拾房间。而你就只是坐在那里看电视,还有抱怨自己有多累。

我们再来看下面这句话:

18 No mountain's too high for you to climb. All you have to do is have some climbing faith. No river's too wide for you to make it across. All you have to do is believe it when you pray.

妙语点睛 我们看到,这里do后面作表语的不定式have和believe的前面都省去了to。

精品译文 没有哪座山因为太高而令你无法翻越,只要你有攀登的信念;没有哪条河因为太宽而令你无法跨越,只要你相信当你祈祷时奇迹就会发生。

最后,请读者记住下面这句话:

19 We can't make everyone love us. All we can do is let ourselves be loved.

妙语点睛 这里其实共有三处to被省去:一是make后面的love,不是to love;二是is后面的let,不是to let;三是let后面的be loved,不是to be loved。

精品译文 虽然我们无法做到让所有人都爱我们,但我们要能做到让自己有人爱。

我想,真正懂得这句话的道理的读者,在爱的路上走起来就应该会轻松和豁达许多,因为爱无法强求,无法去make,只能自己去earn。幸福,请在对的地方寻找……

四、在why(not)+do句子中

在特殊疑问词中,只有why后面要接省去to的不定式。其中,肯定形式的Why do sth.表示“为什么要做某事呢?”含有责怪之意,通常表明做某事是无意义或愚蠢的。请看例句:

20 A: I really hate to write the essay Professor Smith assigned us.

B: Why bother then?

妙语点睛 不能说Why to bother then?*

精品译文 A:史密斯教授布置的那篇论文我真不想写。

B:那干吗还费劲去写呢?

21 Why pay to see that movie, since you can see it on TV for nothing?

精品译文 既然你不花钱就可以在电视上看到那个电影,那为什么还要花钱去看呢?

而否定形式的Why not do sth.?则通常表示建议,在口语中非常常用。比如:

22 Why not take a holiday?

精品译文 为什么不休个假呢?

五、在并列结构中,to常被省去

具体来说,两个动词由and, or, but等词连接时,为了避免重复而把连词后面的不定式的to省去。比如:

23 I'd like to lie down and (to) go to sleep.

精品译文 我想躺下睡觉。

24 Do you want to have lunch now or (to) wait till later?

精品译文 你想现在就吃午饭还是等一会再吃?

25 I haven't decided whether to go home or (to) stay at school during the coming summer vacation.

精品译文 快放暑假了,可我还没决定是回家还是呆在学校。

不过需要注意的是,若两个不定式动词之间有对比之义,则均须保留to。比如在4.5.3小节讨论过的这个例句:

26 The need to love and to be loved seems universal. Maybe this is one trait that separates human beings from other animals.

妙语点睛 这里的to love与to be loved之间显然有强调对比之意,所以and后面的不定式保留了to。

精品译文 爱与被爱的需要似乎是人类普遍的特性,或许正是这一特性把人和动物区分开了。

请看更多的例句:

27 It is the greatest happiness on earth to love and to be loved.

精品译文 爱与被爱是世界上最大的幸福。

28 I came not to praise, but to scold you.

精品译文 我来不是为了要夸奖你,而是要批评你。

其实,即使不只是在并列结构中,只要不定式有对比强调的含义,此时不定式的to都会保留。比如:

29 To play fair is as important as to play well.

精品译文 公平竞争与赛出水平同等重要。

30 He likes to be respected, not to respect others.

精品译文 他喜欢被别人尊重,但就是不愿尊重别人。

六、在一些固定的动词搭配中

这些搭配包括:make do(设法应付,对付),make believe(假装),let drop(使……掉下来),let fall(让……倒下),let fly(放飞),let slip(放走,错失机会),let go of(松开),hear say(听说),leave go of(放走)等等。请看例句:

31 Let's make believe we are now on a deserted island.

精品译文 现在让我们来假想自己是在一座孤岛上。

谈到美国的好莱坞,有这样一个句子:

32 Hollywood is the land of make-believe. Actors pretend they're someone else, and when the movie's finished, the producers make believe it's good.

精品译文 好莱坞就是这么一个“虚假的”地方:演员们假装自己是别的什么人,电影拍完后,制片人假想它很卖座。

思维总结

对于不定式to的省略结构,重点是4.14.1小节,以及4.14.2小节的第一和第三点,读者应该掌握这些用法。

思维训练

Exercise 4.14

1. 用括号中动词的适当形式填空。

1. The boy was made     (sing) the song once again.

2. Don't make children     (work) too hard.

3. They would rather     (die) than     (surrender).

4. He could not choose but     (love) her.

5. She could do nothing but     (change) her name under the circumstances.

6. There was nothing to do except     (escape).

7. He has no alternative but     (go) and ask his sister for help.

8. If he is not willing to be with you, why     (not, ask) somebody else?

9. Since he is only a kid, why     (make) fun of him?

10. A: What can you see in a park?

B: I can see birds     (fly) in the sky and sometimes I can see people     (do) shadowboxing.

A: Do you hear anything in the park?

B: Yes, I can hear people     (chat) here and there and sometimes I can hear young people     (speak) English at the English corner.

2. 选择最佳答案填空。

11. Henry made his little brother     the dishes for him.

A. washing

B. to wash

C. wash

D. washed
12. A: Did you translate it?

B: No, I     a friend to do it.
A. had

B. got

C. made

D. let

13. They are going to have the serviceman     an electric fan in the office tomorrow.

A. install

B. to install

C. to be installed

D. installed

14. The minister had his secretaries     a press conference.

A. arrange

B. to arrange

C. arranging

D. arranged

15. To my great surprise, she preferred to give herself up     herself.

A. than hiding

B. rather than to hide

C. to hiding

D. rather than hide

16. In the course of a day students do far more than just     classes.

A. attend

B. attended

C. to attend

D. attending

17. That was so serious a matter that I had no choice but     the police.

A. called in

B. calling in

C. call in

D. to call in

18. Having missed that last bus, Bob had no alternative     a taxi home though he did not like the idea. (CET-4)

A. but to take

B. take to but

C. to but take

D. to take but

19. She could do nothing but     her name under the circumstances.

A. to change

B. changing

C. change

D. to be changed

写给读者的话

一、本章学习思路

本章内容主要分为两大方面:一是不定式在句中所能充当的各种成分;二是不定式本身的构成形式,即不定式的时态和语态构成,要求读者能真正理解各种不定式形式所表达的不同含义。

二、本章重点及难点

本章的重点内容包括:

 
  1. 不定式放在句末作主语;
  2. 不定式作宾语的结构;
  3. 不定式作宾语补足语的结构;
  4. 不定式作定语的语义关系,重点是宾语关系和同位语关系;
  5. 不定式用在形容词后面的语义关系,尤其要关注宾语关系;
  6. 不定式作目的状语;
  7. 掌握不定式逻辑主语的构成(一):for+名词或代词+to do;
  8. 熟练掌握不定式的被动结构、完成式的意义和用法,掌握完成不定式的谓语特点;
  9. 熟悉掌握省去to的不定式。

本章的难点在于4.6节讨论的“形容词+to do”这个结构,因为它有复杂的逻辑语义关系和句型结构。另外,4.5节讨论的不定式作定语的结构也比较复杂,请注意理解各种逻辑语义关系,重点是宾语关系和同位语关系。

三、本章学习时间安排

非谓语中的“不定式”在繁杂程度上类似于从句中的“状语从句”,二者内容都比较多而杂,所以建议读者也需要花较多的时间来学习。

读者可以花两周的时间来读完本章内容以及做完所有的练习。这些时间可以分为两大部分:大部分时间放在不定式作成分的内容方面,另一部分时间用来集中研究不定式的时态和语态问题。其中应该把“名词+to do”和“形容词+to do”两部分内容结合起来分析比较,重点放在它们的逻辑语义关系上,这可以花五天的时间来认真研究、总结、反复思考并进行相应的练习。其他成分的内容可以花五天时间来学习。最后一部分时间分配到不定式的时态和语态上,重点是完成式to have done的意义。

在看完所有的讲解内容之后,读者可以再从头到尾总结一下,最后再做综合练习,并参照所给答案认真分析。

综合练习

1. 选择最佳答案填空。

1.     any aspect of society, the sociologist must determine the laws influencing human behavior in social contexts.

A. Explain

B. To explain

C. One explains

D. The explanation of

2.     as a masterpiece, a work of art must transcend the ideals of the period in which it was created.

A. To rank

B. The ranking

C. To be ranked

D. For being ranked

3.     the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, engineers are creating exotic new metallic substances.

A. Meet

B. Being met are

C. To meet

D. They are meeting

4. On Saturday afternoon, Mrs. Green went to the market,     some bananas and visited her cousin.

A. bought

B. buying

C. to buy

D. buy

5. We will have to get the Dean     this form.

A. to sign

B. sign

C. signed

D. signing

6. She is having her car     this week.

A. to repair

B. repair

C. repaired

D. repairing

7. The doctor had the patient     on at once.

A. operate

B. operated

C. to operate

D. operating

8. My sister's professor had her     her paper many times before allowing her to present it to the committee.

A. rewritten

B. to rewrite

C. rewrite

D. rewriting

9. The teacher had the students     their homework every day.

A. do

B. to do

C. done

D. doing

10. We're leaving at six o'clock in the morning, and hope to     most of the journey by lunch time.

A. be doing

B. have done

C. have been done

D. do

11. A membership card authorizes     the club's facilities of a period of 12 months.

A. the holder using

B. the holder's use

C. the holder to use

D. the holder uses

12. He asked     since he had been chairman for seven years.

A. not to have been re-elected

B. to be not re-elected

C. not to be re-elected

D. to have not been re-elected

13. The police were tracking the criminal who was said     in a nearby wood.

A. have hidden

B. to be hiding

C. to hiding

D. to hide

14. At the Seventh International Ballet Competitions, Ferando Bujones won the first gold medal ever     to a United States male dancer.

A. to be awarded

B. to award

C. that awards

D. should be awarding
15. "I was arguing with him about our plan just now."

"Why     with him? He'll never change his mind."
A. arguing

B. argue

C. to argue

D. you argue

16. It is extremely important for an engineer to know     a computer.

A. use

B. to use

C. how to use

D. using

17. The ancient Egyptians are supposed     rockets to the moon.

A. to send

B. to be sending

C. to have sent

D. to have been sending

18. He prefers to stay here     go home.

A. than to

B. rather than

C. rather than to

D. than

19. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes     the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning.

A. it is possible

B. it possible

C. possible

D. them possible

20. I should very much like to have gone to the party, but I    .

A. was not invited

B. am not invited

C. shall not be invited

D. am not being invited

21. All too often, women complain that they're educated as equals, only to go out into the workforce     as inferiors.

A. to treat

B. to be treated

C. be treated

D. treat

22. After twenty years abroad, William came back only     his hometown severely damaged in an earthquake.

A. finding

B. to find

C. was finding

D. was to find

23. They were believed     the problem beforehand.

A. to discuss

B. in discussing

C. to have discussed

D. to have been discussed

24.     money in such a dishonest way, he would beg in the streets.

A. Rather than getting

B. Rather than to get

C. Rather than get

D. More than get

25. He came all the way to help her     that she drowned herself in a well.

A. only to find

B. to find

C. in order to find

D. so as to find

26. He preferred     with that Managing Editor.

A. not to identifying

B. identify himself

C. identity

D. not to identify himself

27. Caught in the act, he had no alternative but    

A. confess

B. confessing

C. confessed

D. to confess

28. It is heartening to see millions who had nothing but a record of misery and hunger     to improve their life.

A. having had the chance

B. had the chance

C. to have the chance

D. have the chance

29. The girl tried many times to sneak across the border to a neighboring country,     each time.

A. having been caught

B. always being caught

C. had been caught

D. only to be caught

30. I experienced having students     a thousand new words in a week.

A. considering less talented to remember

B. considered less talented remember

C. considering less talented remember

D. considered less talented to remember

31. The party     at my house, but the central heating broke down, and we had to have it at John's place.

A. would be

B. have been

C. was to be

D. was to have been

32. For the government, the challenge     the reform to the end.

A. is carry out

B. is to carry out

C. is for carrying out

D. is to carrying out

33. The Cubists were concerned with how     a given subject from different points of view simultaneously.

A. represented

B. to represent

C. do they represent

D. represent

34. The parents scolded the child and made her promise     again.

A. never to do that

B. what to do never

C. that never to do that

D. so never to do that

35. I spoke to the kid kindly     him.

A. not to frighten

B. so as not to frighten

C. in order to not frighten

D. for not frightening

36. The child may be able to attain his immediate goal     that his method brings criticism from people who observe him.

A. only to find

B. only find

C. only finding

D. only have found

37. The student continued to do mischief in class even though his teacher repeatedly told him    .

A. not doing

B. not

C. not to

D. to

38. The teacher doesn't allow     on the exam.

A. his students to cheat

B. his students' cheating

C. to cheat

D. his students cheat

39. The total influence of literature upon the course of human history    .

A. is difficult to evaluate

B. is difficult to evaluate it

C. difficult to evaluate it

D. it is difficult to evaluate

40. Those naughty boys were caught     flowers in the garden again.

A. to steal

B. stealing

C. to have stolen

D. having stolen

41. Much of the forest, along with the farmland, near the Mount Saint Helens volcano, appears to     at the time of the eruption.

A. be destroying

B. have been destroying

C. be destroyed

D. have been destroyed

42. By the first decade of the 21st century, international commercial air traffic is expected     vastly beyond today's levels.

A. to have extended

B. to be extending

C. to extend

D. to be extended

43. A Dream of the Red Chamber is said     into dozens of languages in the last decade.

A. to have been translated

B. to translate

C. to be translated

D. to have translated

44. In 1938 Pearl S. Buck became the first American woman     the Nobel Prize for Literature.

A. receive

B. received

C. to receive

D. she received

45. The first explorer     California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1825.

A. that he reached

B. to reach

C. reached

D. reaching it

46. If you still don't have an answer from the University of New York, why     call the admission office?

A. you don't

B. not to

C. not

D. don't

47. I'd rather have a room of my own, however small it is, than     a room with someone else.

A. to share

B. to have shared

C. share

D. sharing

48. Mrs. Brown is supposed     for Italy last week.

A. to have left

B. to be leaving

C. to leave

D. to have been left

49. For nearly four hours they waited for the decision, only     to come again next day.

A. they were told

B. to be told

C. to tell

D. being told

50. In order to     a passport, one must either present legal documents or call a witness to give evidence concerning one's identity.

A. be issued

B. issue

C. have issue

D. have been issued

51. As luck would have it, my teacher happened to     America when an earthquake occurred in his native place.

A. visit

B. have visited

C. be visiting

D. have been visiting

52. If we allow our imagination     by known research, our prophecies need not be sheer fantasy.

A. guided

B. be guided

C. to be guided

D. being guided

53. During the exam, the school authorities won't allow     freely.

A. to talk

B. talk

C. talking

D. to be talking

54. Since you changed lanes without signaling, you are as much     for the accident as us.

A. to be blamed

B. to blame

C. blamed

D. blaming

2. 辨别改错。

55. In order that (A) save the California condor from (B) extinction, a group of federal, local (C), and private organizations initiated a rescue (D) program.

56. Because of (A) the recent accidents, our parents forbid me from swimming (B) in the river unless (C) someone agrees to watch over (D) us.

57. Those part-time students expected to offer (A) some jobs on (B) campus during (C) the coming (D) summer vacation.

58. A conductor uses signals and gestures to let (A) the musicians to know (B) when to play (C) various parts of a composition (D).

59. Ogden Nash often extended (A) sentences over (B) several lines produce (C) surprising (D) and comical rhymes.

60. For thousands of years, people have used (A) some kind (B) of refrigeration cooling (C) beverages and preserve edibles (D).

61. The fragrant leaves (A) of the laurel plant to sell (B) commercially as bay leaves and are used for (C) seasoning foods (D).

62. As secretary (A) of transportation from 1975 to 1977, William Coleman worked to help (B) the bankrupt railroads in the northeastern United States solved (C) their financial (D) problems.

3. 分析下面文章中黑体部分的不定式所充当的句子成分,并把文章译成流畅的汉语。

There are two basic ways to see growth: one as a product, the other as a process. People have generally viewed personal growth as an external result or product that can easily be identified and measured. The worker who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language--all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for their efforts.

By contrast, the process of personal growth is much more difficult to determine, since by definition it is a journey and not the specific signposts or landmarks along the way. The process is not the road itself, but rather the attitudes and feelings people have, their caution or courage, as they encounter new experiences and unexpected obstacles. In this process, the journey never really ends; there are always new ways to experience the world, new ideas to try, new challenges to accept.

In order to grow, to travel new roads, people need to have a willingness to take risks, to confront the unknown, and to accept the possibility that they may "fail" at first. How we see ourselves as we try a new way of being is essential to our ability to grow. Do we perceive ourselves as quick and curious? If so, then we tend to take more chances and to be more open to unfamiliar experiences. Do we think we're shy and indecisive? Then our sense of timidity can cause us to hesitate, to move slowly, and not to take a step until we know the ground is safe. Do we think we're slow to adapt to change or that we're not smart enough to cope with a new challenge? Then we are likely to take a more passive role or not try at all.

These feelings of insecurity and self-doubt are both unavoidable and necessary if we are to change and grow. If we do not confront and overcome these internal fears and doubts, if we protect ourselves too much, then we cease to grow. We become trapped inside a shell of our own making.

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