目录
写在前面 序言 第一章 简单句与复合句 1.1 引言 1.2 句型一:主语+系动词+表语 1.2.1 谓语动词的特点 1.2.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.3 句型二:主语+谓语 1.3.1 谓语动词的特点 1.3.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.4 句型三:主语+谓语+宾语 1.4.1 谓语动词的特点 1.4.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.5 句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 1.5.1 谓语动词的特点 1.5.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.6 句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 1.6.1 谓语动词的特点 1.6.2 区分双宾语和复合宾语 1.6.3 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.7 从简单句到复合句 第二章 名词从句 2.1 简单句与名词从句 2.1.1 何谓名词从句? 2.1.2 陈述句作句子成分 2.1.3 一般疑问句作句子成分 2.1.4 特殊疑问句作句子成分 2.1.5 引导名词从句的连接词 2.2 简单句与主语从句 2.2.1 陈述句作主语 2.2.2 一般疑问句作主语 2.2.3 特殊疑问句作主语 2.3 简单句与宾语从句 2.3.1 陈述句作宾语 2.3.2 一般疑问句作宾语 2.3.3 特殊疑问句作宾语 2.4 简单句与表语从句 2.4.1 陈述句作表语 2.4.2 一般疑问句作表语 2.4.3 特殊疑问句作表语 2.5 简单句与同位语从句 2.5.1 陈述句作同位语 2.5.2 一般疑问句作同位语 2.5.3 特殊疑问句作同位语 第三章 定语从句 3.1 定语从句概述 3.1.1 形容词作定语与从句作定语比较 3.1.2 定语从句的两个重要概念:先行词和关系词 3.2 关系词在定语从句充当的成分 3.2.1 关系词用作从句的主语 3.2.2 关系词用作从句中动词的宾语 3.2.3 关系词用作从句中介词的宾语 3.2.4 作宾语的关系词可以省去 3.3 关系代词与先行词的搭配关系 3.3.1 先行词指“人”,用关系代词who或whom 3.3.2 表示人或物的所有关系,用whose 3.3.3 先行词指“物”,用关系代词which 3.3.4 that可以指代“人”,也可以指代“物” 3.4 关系副词的用法 3.4.1 when的用法 3.4.2 where的用法 3.4.3 why的用法 3.5 限制性与非限制性定语从句 3.5.1 限制性定语从句——不用逗号隔开 3.5.2 非限制性定语从句——用逗号隔开 3.5.3 用或不用逗号,句义有差别 3.5.4 非限制性定语从句的翻译 3.6 定语从句与同位语从句的区分 3.6.1 从结构上区分:that是否作成分 3.6.2 从意义上区分:that引导的从句的意义不同 第四章 状语从句 4.1 时间状语从句 4.1.1 时间连词when的用法特点 4.1.2 时间连词while的用法特点 4.1.3 时间连词until的用法特点 4.1.4 表示“一……就”的结构 4.2 地点状语从句 4.3 原因状语从句 4.3.1 常见连词的用法 4.3.2 用介词表示因果关系 4.4 目的状语从句 4.5 结果状语从句 4.5.1 常见连词的用法 4.5.2 结果状语从句的倒装 4.6 条件状语从句 4.6.1 常见连词的用法 4.6.2 其他条件状语从句的连词 4.7 让步状语从句 4.7.1 常见连词的用法 4.7.2 表示让步转折关系的介词 4.7.3 置于句首的while一般表示“尽管” 4.7.4 as引导的倒装句表示让步 4.8 比较状语从句 4.8.1 连词as的基本用法 4.8.2 连词than的基本用法 4.8.3 表示倍数比较的三种句型结构 4.8.4 the more..., the more 句型结构 4.9 方式状语从句 第五章 完成时态 5.1 完成时态的构成 5.2 完成时态的意义 5.3 “回顾”思维 5.4 延续事件 5.4.1 过去的事件“延续”到现在 5.4.2 “延续事件”与时间状语的关系 5.5 重复事件 5.5.1 过去的事件“重复”到现在 5.5.2 “重复事件”与时间状语的关系 5.6 单一事件 5.6.1 何谓“对现在有影响”? 5.6.2 何谓“过去事件”? 5.6.3 新闻热点(hot news)——近的过去 5.6.4 过去经历(past experience)——远的过去 5.6.5 “单一事件”与时间状语的关系 5.7 “延续事件”、“重复事件”与“单一事件”之间的相互关系 5.7.1 延续事件与单一事件 5.7.2 延续事件与重复事件 5.7.3 重复事件与单一事件 5.7.4 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的一般现在时态 5.7.5 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的完成时态 5.8 完成时态用于最高级的句型 5.9 时间连词since的特殊用法 5.10 过去完成时态 5.10.1 在“过去”回顾“更远的过去” 5.10.2 延续事件、重复事件和单一事件的过去完成时 5.10.3 过去完成时的其他意义和用法 5.10.4 过去完成时与一般过去时的比较 5.11 将来完成时 5.11.1 将来完成动作的开始时间 5.11.2 将来完成时的三种思维用法 第六章 完成进行时态 6.1 完成进行时态的构成 6.2 完成进行时态的意义 6.3 延续事件 6.3.1 延续事件概述 6.3.2 延续事件(一):长期在延续的事件 6.3.3 延续事件(二):近期在延续的事件 6.3.4 延续事件(三):在说话时刻仍在延续的事件 6.3.5 延续事件(四):在说话时刻之前在延续的事件(即刚刚在延续的事件) 6.4 延续事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.4.1 比较(一):完成进行时“刚刚在延续的事件”与完成时“单一事件” 6.4.2 比较(二):完成进行时的“延续”与完成时的“延续” 6.5 重复事件 6.5.1 重复事件(一):短暂动词 6.5.2 重复事件(二):有限延续动词 6.6 重复事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.6.1 比较(三):重复动作的分割性 6.6.2 比较(四):短暂动词用于完成进行时来表示重复活动 6.6.3 完成进行时的“重复事件”与一般现在时的“重复事件” 6.7 完成进行时与完成时对比总结 6.7.1 比较(五):完成进行时强调“延续过程”,完成时强调“成果” 6.7.2 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的思维差异总结 6.8 过去完成进行时 6.8.1 过去时刻在延续的事件 6.8.2 在过去时刻重复发生的事件 6.9 将来完成进行时 第七章 虚拟语气 7.1 引言 7.1.1 把U和I放在一起 7.1.2 虚拟条件句:两类三时 7.1.3 虚拟条件句的谓语变化 j x g g x 7.7 倒装虚拟 7.8 跳层虚拟 7.8.1 陈述句+or+虚拟主句 7.8.2 虚拟主句+but+陈述句 7.9 名词从句如何使用虚拟 7.9.1 在下列词的宾语从句中 7.9.2 在it is+形容词或过去分词或特定的名词+that的主语从句中 7.9.3 在上述名词的表语从句和同位语从句中 7.10 各种虚拟句型 7.10.1 在wish后面的宾语从句中 7.10.2 在if only感叹句中 7.10.3 在as if / as though引导的从句中 7.10.4 在it is (high) time (that)从句中 7.10.5 在would rather,would (just) as soon,would sooner,would prefer等从句中 第八章 情态动词 8.1 引言:多情多义的情态动词 8.1.1 情态动词的“全家福” 8.1.2 情态动词的意义 8.1.3 情态动词的结构搭配与意义关系 8.2 推测用法(一):现在推测(情态动词+一般式) 8.2.1 对现在的肯定推测 8.2.2 对现在的否定推测 8.2.3 对现在推测的其他情态动词 8.3 推测用法(二):将来预测(情态动词+一般式) 8.4 推测用法(三):过去推测(情态动词+完成式) 8.5 推测用法(四):情态动词+(完成)进行式 8.6 基本用法(一):现在或将来的能力 8.7 基本用法(二):现实“可能”与理论“可能” 8.8 基本用法(三):过去的能力 8.9 基本用法(四):许可 8.9.1 肯定句——给予许可 8.9.2 否定句——拒绝许可,甚至禁止 8.9.3 could一般不用来表示现在的许可,而表示过去的许可 8.10 基本用法(五):建议与忠告 8.10.1 could表示建议 8.10.2 Shall I...? Shall we...? 8.10.3 may (just) as well, might (just) as well 8.10.4 should和ought to表示忠告 8.10.5 should表示“忠告”与could表示“建议”比较 8.10.6 had better表示“忠告” 8.11 基本用法(六):意愿、意图与执意 8.11.1 意图(intention) 8.11.2 执意(insistence) 8.12 基本用法(七):请求 8.13 基本用法(八):过去习惯 8.14 基本用法(九):should的特殊用法 8.14.1 should表示“竟然” 8.14.2 should表示“万一” 8.15 基本用法(十):shall的特殊用法 8.15.1 用于第一人称的疑问句中:Shall I/we...? 8.15.2 用于第三人称的疑问句中 8.15.3 用于第二、三人称的陈述句中 8.16 基本用法(十一):may的特殊用法 8.17 情态动词的否定 8.17.1 情态动词否定意义的深层结构——内部否定和外部否定 8.17.2 内部否定和外部否定的使用规律 8.18 总结:英文情态与中文情态的简单对比 8.18.1 英文情态意义与中文情态意义的对应性 8.18.2 英文情态动词的委婉表达在汉语中的缺失 附录 答案解析 结语

中级英语语法

英语中级语法教程,高中生英语语法

8.18 总结:英文情态与中文情态的简单对比

从前面各节讨论的内容看到,每个情态动词都有很多的意思,而不同的意思有不同的用法。所以,情态动词的用法和词义变化多端,纷繁复杂,情态动词因此也是让中国学生“摸不着头脑”的一种英语谓语的变化形式。这也可以理解,因为情态动词即是说话人微妙心态变化的反映,native speakers就是通过运用各种功能强大的情态动词以极其微妙的方式来“言传心声”的。本节将简单地比较中文情态与英文情态的用法和意义。

8.18.1 英文情态意义与中文情态意义的对应性

英语中的情态动词的某些意义能在中文中找到比较好的对应表达,比如can对应于“能够”,should对应于“应该”。对于这样一些中文思维里也有的情态意义,中国学生一般使用地比较好。比如:

1 I can speak good English. 我能够讲很好的英文。

2 You should study English. 你应该学习英文。

但是对于下面这些句子中的情态意义就不甚了解或不知道了:

3 Women can do anything when jealous.

妙语点睛

这里的can表示“潜在的可能”或者说“理论上的可能”。显然,这里的can不是中文的情态动词“能够”所能表达的意思。

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女人要是妒忌了,什么事都可能做得出来。

4 It's strange that you should say this.

妙语点睛

这里的should表示惊讶之意——“竟然”。显然,这里的should在中文里没有对应的情态动词。

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你竟然这么说,真是奇怪。

5 We should be grateful if you could do it.

妙语点睛

这里的should和could用于委婉地提出请求,很正式的用语。这里的should没有含义,只是一个礼貌的表达形式。

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如果您能这么做,我们将非常感激。

6 He might come.

妙语点睛

这里的might表示把握不大的推测。

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他或许会来吧。

7 1)I would be happy to help you.

2)I am happy to help you.

妙语点睛

这里说I would be happy to help you.要比I am happy to help you.委婉得多。

在例句1)中,would表达一种委婉假设的含义,意思是说“如果你真的需要我帮忙,我会很乐意帮助你的”。这么用would来说这句话,只是告诉对方你主观上愿意帮助他。至于对方是否需要你来帮助,那是他的选择。在例句2)中,说am就显得比较直截了当,不给对方选择的余地,好像在强迫别人找你帮忙一样,有点把自己的主观意愿强加于对方的感觉(impose yourself on people who don't want your help)。比如,也许对方真的是需要有人帮忙,但他出于自尊心的原因不一定非得找你帮忙。所以,用例句2)也许会让人感觉你把自己当作救世主一样,但例句1)就绝不会让人有这种误解。

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1)如果需要的话,我会非常乐意帮你的。

2)我想要帮你(有困难一定要找我啊)。

笔者曾经告诉自己的一个外国朋友笔者正在写英语语法书,他在电子邮件里回复说:I would be happy to have a read.他这么说的言外之意是:如果笔者愿意把自己的书稿通过电子邮件发给他看看的话,他会非常乐意拜读一下的。他这里用would be happy这么说就显得非常礼貌,没有强迫笔者非得把书稿发过去给他看的意思。如果他说I am happy to have a read.则显得他很想让笔者把书稿发给他看,有点强人所难的意味。

上面笔者解释了这么多,相信读者以后读到类似的含有would的句子,应该有更深刻、更准确的理解了。显然,这里的would在中文中也没有很好的对应词,不是一个简单的“将愿意”就能表达would如此微妙的内涵的。

8 Let me see if I could help work this out.

妙语点睛

这里的could表示非常礼貌和谦虚。即使你认为对方的某个问题是小菜一碟,你能轻而易举地解决,你也不妨用could来显示你的谦虚谨慎。比如,你是公司新来的一名员工,大家对于某个电脑技术难题都无法解决,而你很清楚该怎么处理。面对那么多的公司老前辈和领导,你只是一个初出茅庐的新手,如果你很骄傲地说I can work this out. It's a piece of cake.(这个我能解决,对我来说简直是小菜一碟。)这样说就显得你过于自负,当然会让你的领导及其他老员工脸面上很难堪。但如果你用could说Let me see if I could work this out.则显得你为人谦虚,这样给周围同事的感觉自然大不一样。另外,万一这个问题你也解决不了,你用could这样委婉地表达也是给自己留了余地,因为could表明了你不肯定是否能完成。由此可见,can与could在语气上的巨大差异。这里的could在中文里也没有很好的对应词,不是一个简单的“能够”就能表达could的含义的。

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我来看看是否能够帮忙解决。

请看下面这个例句:

9 I wouldn't pay them a penny.

妙语点睛

这句话是英国伦敦市长肯·利文斯通(Ken Liverstone)说的,他如此直言不讳地批评2012年伦敦奥运会会徽的设计者。这里的would用于虚拟假设,所以在译文中增添了“要是我”这样的条件表达。这里的would没有对应的汉语情态动词。

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要是我,一分钱也不会给他们。

对于上面这些情态动词的微妙含义,没有很好的英语思考方式基础的中国学生是很难理解和把握的,他们往往不能理解这些情态动词所潜含的各种微妙的含义。

总的来说,英语的情态动词所表达的含义要比中文多很多。因此,很多英语的情态意义在中文找不到对应的情态表达,而只能通过其他字词来传达其含义,比如表示惊讶的情态意义的should,在汉语中就取“竟然”来翻译。这就是为什么中国学生往往在口头或书面表达中“忘记”使用或不会使用英语的情态动词来微妙地言传心声的原因。

8.18.2 英文情态动词的委婉表达在汉语中的缺失

英文表达往往要求采用比较礼貌的表达形式,尤其是在“指示(instructions)”、“邀请(invitations)”、“请求(requests)”和“建议(suggestions)”等语境中,此时正是情态动词发挥魅力的时候。但中国学生往往在这些该用情态动词的场合中不使用情态动词,这样使英语的表达显得较为生硬、突然(abrupt),甚至不礼貌。比如汉语里常这样说话:

1 请看一下这篇文章。

2 我们希望你明天能过来和我们一起吃午饭。

3 请你过来坐在这。

4 我建议你去和他说一下。

对于上面的这些中文句子,读者在口语中是不是常常这么说?而且这些表达在汉语里听起来已经够礼貌和客气了。但是如果直接生硬地译成英语,则显得并不十分礼貌。大家来看下面的简单直接的对译:

5 Please read this article.

6 We hope that you will come and have lunch with us tomorrow.

7 You come and sit here, please.

8 I suggest that you have a word with him.

这样简单的“死译”,其重要原因就在于不会灵活地应用英文的情态动词。这些句子其实可以表达得更礼貌。比如同样的意思,若用英文表达,下列表达会显得更自然而礼貌:

9 You may like to read this article.

10 We were wondering whether you could come and have lunch with us tomorrow.

11 Would you come and sit here, please?

12 You might want to have a word with him.

当然,上面这些句子还有其他更多礼貌的表达形式,这时都得采用情态动词。比如,对于最后一句的“提建议”,还可以这样说:

13 I would suggest that you have a word with him.

14 May I suggest that you have a word with him?

如果是在正式的交际场合,比如商务谈判中,往往要借助情态动词来更委婉地,或者说比较“外交辞令”地表达意思,而不会不采用任何情态动词就这么直接而生硬地交流。请比较:

15 1)That's impossible.

2)Unfortunately that wouldn't be possible.

妙语点睛

这两句是在拒绝对方。

在例句1)中,谓语动词用的是is,显得说话的语气非常直白和生硬,容不得对方商量。这自然就会让对方难以接受。在例句2)中,首先是借助would来“软化”生硬的口气。其次,把impossible换成not possible,给人感觉有商量的余地。再次,因为是在拒绝对方,所以用副词unfortunately来表达遗憾,给对方以安慰。

由此可见,为了使话语显得礼貌,采用了上述三个方面的处理。

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1)这是不可能的。

2)很遗憾,这恐怕不太可能。

16 1)It is a good idea to agree on a price before we go any further.

2)Wouldn't it be a better idea to agree on a price before we go any further?

妙语点睛

这两句是在提建议。

在例句1)中,谓语动词用的是is,it is a good idea表示“……这样做好”,用这种方式来向对方提出建议,显得有些自负而傲慢,有把自己的观点强加于对方的味道。在例句2)中,首先,借助would来“软化”生硬的口气。其次,把肯定句变为否定句,给对方很大的选择余地。再次,用否定的wouldn't来提问,更具商量的口吻。第四,把good变成better也显得更礼貌。

由此可见,为了使话语显得礼貌,我们采用了上述四个方面的技术处理。

精品译文

1)我们还是先商定好价格然后再继续往下谈吧,这样比较好。

2)在继续往下讨论之前,如果我们能先商定一下价格,是不是更好些?

17 1)We can't go higher than 7 per cent.

2)We would find it (quite) difficult to go any higher than 7 per cent.

妙语点睛

这两句是在讨价还价。

在例句1)中,直接说“不能(can't)”,没有给对方回旋的余地。在例句2)中,首先,借助would来“软化”生硬的口气。其次,difficult相当于委婉地说impossible,从而比较礼貌地拒绝对方的要求。

精品译文

1)我们无法再高于7%了。

2)如果这样的话,我们发现很难再高于7%了。

18 1)We need a commitment from you now.

2)We would like some kind of commitment from you now.

妙语点睛

这两句是在向对方提要求。

在例句1)中,用need显得比较直截了当地提出自己的要求。在例句2)中,用would来委婉地说出自己的需要。其次,增添了some kind来缓和语气。

精品译文

1)我们现在就需要你的承诺。

2)现在我们想知道你能不能给我们一些承诺。

19 1)You'll have to pay more if you want that.

2)You may have to pay slightly more if you (really) want that.

妙语点睛

在例句1)中,用will显得语气比较强硬。在例句2)中,用委婉的may,表示“或许”来缓和语气。其次,增添了slightly来轻描淡写,以及really来加强语气,这两个词都起到了“软化”语气的作用。

精品译文

1)如果你想那样的话,那你就必须得多付钱。

2)如果你真的是想那样的话,那么你或许得需要稍微多付点钱。

20 1)It will be difficult to get my boss to agree to this.

2)It might not be very easy to get my boss to agree to this.

妙语点睛

在例句1)中,用will显得语气比较强硬。在例句2)中,用委婉的might,表示“或许”来缓和语气。其次,把difficult改成not very easy,给对方的感觉更好。

精品译文

1)这样就一定很难得到我们老板的同意了。

2)这样或许不太容易得到我们老板的同意。

21 1)We should spend more time looking for a compromise here.

2)Shouldn't we spend a little more time looking for a compromise here?

妙语点睛

这两句是在提建议。

在例句1)中,用should显得语气比较强硬。在例句2)中,用shouldn't委婉地否定反问,显得是在和对方商量,给人以礼貌的感觉。

精品译文

1)在这一点上,我们双方应该多花时间来寻找一个折中的办法。

2)在这一点上,我们双方是不是应该多花点时间来寻找一个折中的办法呢?

从以上各对例句的比较中,我们看到,在进行委婉的表达时,各类情态动词在其中起了根本的作用,其次才是结合疑问句式以及增添某些词语来共同表达委婉的语气。对于情态动词礼貌的表达作用,读者需要多加观察和用心体会。

尽管在本章中对于情态动词的意义和用法已作了较为详尽和系统的分析与比较,但不可能包括所有的用法。正如在“引言”里指出的,情态动词即是说话人微妙心态变化的反映,老外就是通过运用各种功能强大的情态动词以极其微妙的方式来“言传心声”的。所以,希望读者在英语学习过程中,继续观察、分析和体会情态动词这种微妙的使用规律,以逐渐习得英语思考方式。

 

写给读者的话


一、本章学习思路

正如在前面讲过的,对于情态动词的学习,可以从两个方面入手。一方面,以情态动词的推测用法和基本用法为主线,来探讨各个情态动词之间的相关性。另一方面,可以单独以各个情态动词为主线,对每个情态动词可能具有的语义功能给予总结和归纳。

由于在本章采用的主要是第一种阐述方式,因此,读者可以此作为主要的学习途径。

另外,在涉及情态动词的虚拟用法时,读者应该结合第七章的相关内容来学习。

二、本章重点及难点

总体来说,情态动词的意义和用法都是比较难的,非常微妙。在诸多内容中,建议读者重点掌握下面这些用法:

1.对现在推测的用法;

2.对过去推测的用法;

3.在表示过去的能力时,could与was/were able to的区别;

4.表示“请求”的各个句型。

最后,对其他用法要有所了解。

三、本章学习时间安排

读者可以用两周左右的时间研读完所讲解的内容,并做完每节后面的练习,然后从头复习一遍或两遍,最后用两天左右的时间来做后面的综合练习,并结合所给的答案搞清楚每题的考点及情态动词的意义。


 

综合练习


请根据句义,选出正确的情态动词。

1.We are enjoying our holiday, though the weather (could, must) be better.

2.We (could, might) go to that new restaurant opposite the cinema.

3.How about going to the theater instead. We (could, should) go to the theater instead.

4.I don't know how she knows, but Mom (can, may) always detect when I'm lying.

5.Nobody else is going to turn up now for the lesson, so you (have to, may as well) go home.

6.No member of the association (shall, will) remove official documents from these premises without written permission.

7.The peace conference (may, has to) find a solution to the problem.

8.Rule 6. No member (shall, should) enter the bar area wearing sports kit.

9.The heating comes on automatically. You (must not, don't have to) turn it on.

10.It's a lovely hotel. And the staff (couldn't, might not) be more helpful.

11.You (could, may) be right, but I still don't agree with you!

12.I am sure Nick wasn't there. That (can't have been, shouldn't have been) Nick that you saw.

13.You (had to give, might have given) me a hand!

14.I caught a later train because I (had to see, must have seen) a client.

15.I suppose Bill (should have lost, might have lost) his way.

16.I don't know who rang, but it (could, must) have been Jim.

17.The situation was bad but it (could be, may have been, could have been) worse.

18.It's a pity you didn't ask because I (could help, could have helped) you.

19.It's your own fault, you (can't have, shouldn't have gone) to bed so late.

20.I was so angry that I (might, may) have killed her.

21.You screamed in your sleep last night. You (might have, might have had) a terrible dream.

22.Harry studies a lot. He (should know, should have known) all the answers.

请选出与所给句子在意思上最接近的解释。

23.It's possible that we'll know the answers tomorrow.

A.We may know all the answers tomorrow.

B.We should know all the answers tomorrow.

24.It's possible that the decision will be announced next week.

A.The decision might be announced next week.

B.The decision will be announced next week.

25.I know. Why don't we go out to eat instead.

A.I know. We must go out to eat instead.

B.I know. We could go out to eat instead.

26.Perhaps these are the keys.

A.These might be the keys.

B.These must be the keys.

27.I think it's wrong for you to work so hard.

A.You don't have to work so hard.

B.You shouldn't work so hard.

28.You needn't come if you don't want to.

A.You won't come if you don't want to.

B.You don't have to come if you don't want to.

29.It would be quite wrong for us to lock the dog in the house for a week.

A.We'd better not lock the dog in the house for a week.

B.We can't lock the dog in the house for a week.

30.I don't think you should ring him now. It's rather late.

A.You might not ring him now. It's rather late.

B.You'd better not ring him now. It's rather late.

请根据句义填空。

31.Peter wasn't here, so he_______(break) your vase.

32.I'm sure Jack didn't mean to ignore you. He_______(notice) you.

33.That was a lucky escape! We_______(kill)!

34.The meat is a bit burnt. You_______(cook) it for so long. I did tell you!

35.There were plenty of tickets left for the concert. We_______(buy) them in advance.

36.Sally got home at four o'clock this morning. The party_______(be) really good.

37.Thank you very much for buying me flowers. You______(buy) me flowers.

38.I don't believe that you have lost your keys again! You______(lose) your keys again.

39.Mary was a talented violinist at the age of ten. She_______(play) the violin very well when she was ten.

40.Perhaps they didn't notice the tire was flat. They_______(notice) the tire was flat.

41.Our worrying so much was a waste of time. We________(worry) so much.

42.It's possible that the last person to leave didn't lock the door. The last person to leave_______(lock) the door.

43.They hurried there, only to find the meeting was cancelled. In fact, they________(go) there.

44.She paid him and walked off. Then she realized that he_______(not, be) a deaf mute. How did she know? He must have heard her initial instructions or he_______(not, know) where to take her.

45.A: It seems to rain. I guess I________(bring) my umbrella.

B: It would be nice to have one but how________you_______(know) that this morning?

46."If you sit too close to the television, you'll ruin your eyes." Sound familiar? You_______(hear) this warning as a child. People sit too close to the television because they already can't see very well. This may give them tired eyes or a headache, but it won't make their eyesight any worse.

请选择最佳答案填空。

47.As it turned out to be a small house party, we_______so formally.

A.needn't dress up

B.did not need have dressed up

C.did not need dress up

D.needn't have dressed up

48.You can't imagine that a well-behaved gentleman__________be so rude to a lady.

A.might

B.need

C.should

D.would

49.It has been announced that candidates________remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected.

A.can

B.will

C.may

D.shall

50.It is unthinkable that he_________be so careless.

A.will

B.would

C.shall

D.should

51.The boss has promised that every player in NBA__________have a rise in income.

A.would

B.might

C.shall

D.should

52.A man wants to see you, sir._________he wait outside?

A.Will

B.Shall

C.Would

D.Ought

53.He was a good swimmer so he_________swim to the river bank when the boat sank.

A.could

B.might

C.succeeded to

D.was able to

54.Oh, I'm not feeling well in the stomach.I_________so much fried chicken just now.

A.shouldn't eat

B.mustn't have eaten

C.shouldn't have eaten

D.mustn't eat

55.Several cases have been reported recently of people who________read and detect colors with their fingers.

A.should

B.can

C.will

D.could

56.No one expect his secretary_________go straight into his office without permission.

A.can

B.is able to

C.will

D.is not allowed to

57.She was absent for the first time yesterday. She_________sick.

A.must be

B.has been

C.is

D.must have been

58.He did very badly on the exam. He_________harder.

A.must study

B.must have studied

C.should study

D.should have studied

59.I________to him because he phoned me shortly afterwards.

A.ought to have written

B.must have written

C.couldn't have written

D.needn't have written

60.He_________ten lectures on American history, but he only gave two because of his illness.

A.had given

B.would give

C.must have given

D.should have given

61.We did hold a meeting yesterday, but you________. So we did not inform you.

A.did not need attending

B.needn't attending

C.did not need to attend

D.needn't attend

62.We came early and had to wait two hours before the ceremony began. We_______.

A.should not hurry

B.must not have hurried

C.need not hurry

D.need not have hurried

63."Have you paid your telephone bill?"

"No, but I________yesterday."

A.ought to pay it

B.ought to have paid it

C.must pay it

D.must have paid it

64.He__________pull down a bull and acknowledged as a man with superman strength.

A.used to be able to

B.would be able to

C.should be able to

D.might be able to

65.Some women_________a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family.

A.must make

B.should have made

C.would make

D.could have made

66.I didn't send out my application form last week, but I_______.

A.had

B.would do

C.should have

D.might have to

67.Mary_________my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

A.has received

B.ought to have received

C.couldn't have received

D.shouldn't have received

68.You_________him so closely; you should have kept your distance.

A.shouldn't follow

B.mustn't follow

C.couldn't have been following

D.shouldn't have been following

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