目录
写在前面 序言 第一章 简单句与复合句 1.1 引言 1.2 句型一:主语+系动词+表语 1.2.1 谓语动词的特点 1.2.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.3 句型二:主语+谓语 1.3.1 谓语动词的特点 1.3.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.4 句型三:主语+谓语+宾语 1.4.1 谓语动词的特点 1.4.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.5 句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 1.5.1 谓语动词的特点 1.5.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.6 句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 1.6.1 谓语动词的特点 1.6.2 区分双宾语和复合宾语 1.6.3 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.7 从简单句到复合句 第二章 名词从句 2.1 简单句与名词从句 2.1.1 何谓名词从句? 2.1.2 陈述句作句子成分 2.1.3 一般疑问句作句子成分 2.1.4 特殊疑问句作句子成分 2.1.5 引导名词从句的连接词 2.2 简单句与主语从句 2.2.1 陈述句作主语 2.2.2 一般疑问句作主语 2.2.3 特殊疑问句作主语 2.3 简单句与宾语从句 2.3.1 陈述句作宾语 2.3.2 一般疑问句作宾语 2.3.3 特殊疑问句作宾语 2.4 简单句与表语从句 2.4.1 陈述句作表语 2.4.2 一般疑问句作表语 2.4.3 特殊疑问句作表语 2.5 简单句与同位语从句 2.5.1 陈述句作同位语 2.5.2 一般疑问句作同位语 2.5.3 特殊疑问句作同位语 第三章 定语从句 3.1 定语从句概述 3.1.1 形容词作定语与从句作定语比较 3.1.2 定语从句的两个重要概念:先行词和关系词 3.2 关系词在定语从句充当的成分 3.2.1 关系词用作从句的主语 3.2.2 关系词用作从句中动词的宾语 3.2.3 关系词用作从句中介词的宾语 3.2.4 作宾语的关系词可以省去 3.3 关系代词与先行词的搭配关系 3.3.1 先行词指“人”,用关系代词who或whom 3.3.2 表示人或物的所有关系,用whose 3.3.3 先行词指“物”,用关系代词which 3.3.4 that可以指代“人”,也可以指代“物” 3.4 关系副词的用法 3.4.1 when的用法 3.4.2 where的用法 3.4.3 why的用法 3.5 限制性与非限制性定语从句 3.5.1 限制性定语从句——不用逗号隔开 3.5.2 非限制性定语从句——用逗号隔开 3.5.3 用或不用逗号,句义有差别 3.5.4 非限制性定语从句的翻译 3.6 定语从句与同位语从句的区分 3.6.1 从结构上区分:that是否作成分 3.6.2 从意义上区分:that引导的从句的意义不同 第四章 状语从句 4.1 时间状语从句 4.1.1 时间连词when的用法特点 4.1.2 时间连词while的用法特点 4.1.3 时间连词until的用法特点 4.1.4 表示“一……就”的结构 4.2 地点状语从句 4.3 原因状语从句 4.3.1 常见连词的用法 4.3.2 用介词表示因果关系 4.4 目的状语从句 4.5 结果状语从句 4.5.1 常见连词的用法 4.5.2 结果状语从句的倒装 4.6 条件状语从句 4.6.1 常见连词的用法 4.6.2 其他条件状语从句的连词 4.7 让步状语从句 4.7.1 常见连词的用法 4.7.2 表示让步转折关系的介词 4.7.3 置于句首的while一般表示“尽管” 4.7.4 as引导的倒装句表示让步 4.8 比较状语从句 4.8.1 连词as的基本用法 4.8.2 连词than的基本用法 4.8.3 表示倍数比较的三种句型结构 4.8.4 the more..., the more 句型结构 4.9 方式状语从句 第五章 完成时态 5.1 完成时态的构成 5.2 完成时态的意义 5.3 “回顾”思维 5.4 延续事件 5.4.1 过去的事件“延续”到现在 5.4.2 “延续事件”与时间状语的关系 5.5 重复事件 5.5.1 过去的事件“重复”到现在 5.5.2 “重复事件”与时间状语的关系 5.6 单一事件 5.6.1 何谓“对现在有影响”? 5.6.2 何谓“过去事件”? 5.6.3 新闻热点(hot news)——近的过去 5.6.4 过去经历(past experience)——远的过去 5.6.5 “单一事件”与时间状语的关系 5.7 “延续事件”、“重复事件”与“单一事件”之间的相互关系 5.7.1 延续事件与单一事件 5.7.2 延续事件与重复事件 5.7.3 重复事件与单一事件 5.7.4 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的一般现在时态 5.7.5 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的完成时态 5.8 完成时态用于最高级的句型 5.9 时间连词since的特殊用法 5.10 过去完成时态 5.10.1 在“过去”回顾“更远的过去” 5.10.2 延续事件、重复事件和单一事件的过去完成时 5.10.3 过去完成时的其他意义和用法 5.10.4 过去完成时与一般过去时的比较 5.11 将来完成时 5.11.1 将来完成动作的开始时间 5.11.2 将来完成时的三种思维用法 第六章 完成进行时态 6.1 完成进行时态的构成 6.2 完成进行时态的意义 6.3 延续事件 6.3.1 延续事件概述 6.3.2 延续事件(一):长期在延续的事件 6.3.3 延续事件(二):近期在延续的事件 6.3.4 延续事件(三):在说话时刻仍在延续的事件 6.3.5 延续事件(四):在说话时刻之前在延续的事件(即刚刚在延续的事件) 6.4 延续事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.4.1 比较(一):完成进行时“刚刚在延续的事件”与完成时“单一事件” 6.4.2 比较(二):完成进行时的“延续”与完成时的“延续” 6.5 重复事件 6.5.1 重复事件(一):短暂动词 6.5.2 重复事件(二):有限延续动词 6.6 重复事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.6.1 比较(三):重复动作的分割性 6.6.2 比较(四):短暂动词用于完成进行时来表示重复活动 6.6.3 完成进行时的“重复事件”与一般现在时的“重复事件” 6.7 完成进行时与完成时对比总结 6.7.1 比较(五):完成进行时强调“延续过程”,完成时强调“成果” 6.7.2 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的思维差异总结 6.8 过去完成进行时 6.8.1 过去时刻在延续的事件 6.8.2 在过去时刻重复发生的事件 6.9 将来完成进行时 第七章 虚拟语气 7.1 引言 7.1.1 把U和I放在一起 7.1.2 虚拟条件句:两类三时 7.1.3 虚拟条件句的谓语变化 j x g g x 7.7 倒装虚拟 7.8 跳层虚拟 7.8.1 陈述句+or+虚拟主句 7.8.2 虚拟主句+but+陈述句 7.9 名词从句如何使用虚拟 7.9.1 在下列词的宾语从句中 7.9.2 在it is+形容词或过去分词或特定的名词+that的主语从句中 7.9.3 在上述名词的表语从句和同位语从句中 7.10 各种虚拟句型 7.10.1 在wish后面的宾语从句中 7.10.2 在if only感叹句中 7.10.3 在as if / as though引导的从句中 7.10.4 在it is (high) time (that)从句中 7.10.5 在would rather,would (just) as soon,would sooner,would prefer等从句中 第八章 情态动词 8.1 引言:多情多义的情态动词 8.1.1 情态动词的“全家福” 8.1.2 情态动词的意义 8.1.3 情态动词的结构搭配与意义关系 8.2 推测用法(一):现在推测(情态动词+一般式) 8.2.1 对现在的肯定推测 8.2.2 对现在的否定推测 8.2.3 对现在推测的其他情态动词 8.3 推测用法(二):将来预测(情态动词+一般式) 8.4 推测用法(三):过去推测(情态动词+完成式) 8.5 推测用法(四):情态动词+(完成)进行式 8.6 基本用法(一):现在或将来的能力 8.7 基本用法(二):现实“可能”与理论“可能” 8.8 基本用法(三):过去的能力 8.9 基本用法(四):许可 8.9.1 肯定句——给予许可 8.9.2 否定句——拒绝许可,甚至禁止 8.9.3 could一般不用来表示现在的许可,而表示过去的许可 8.10 基本用法(五):建议与忠告 8.10.1 could表示建议 8.10.2 Shall I...? Shall we...? 8.10.3 may (just) as well, might (just) as well 8.10.4 should和ought to表示忠告 8.10.5 should表示“忠告”与could表示“建议”比较 8.10.6 had better表示“忠告” 8.11 基本用法(六):意愿、意图与执意 8.11.1 意图(intention) 8.11.2 执意(insistence) 8.12 基本用法(七):请求 8.13 基本用法(八):过去习惯 8.14 基本用法(九):should的特殊用法 8.14.1 should表示“竟然” 8.14.2 should表示“万一” 8.15 基本用法(十):shall的特殊用法 8.15.1 用于第一人称的疑问句中:Shall I/we...? 8.15.2 用于第三人称的疑问句中 8.15.3 用于第二、三人称的陈述句中 8.16 基本用法(十一):may的特殊用法 8.17 情态动词的否定 8.17.1 情态动词否定意义的深层结构——内部否定和外部否定 8.17.2 内部否定和外部否定的使用规律 8.18 总结:英文情态与中文情态的简单对比 8.18.1 英文情态意义与中文情态意义的对应性 8.18.2 英文情态动词的委婉表达在汉语中的缺失 附录 答案解析 结语

中级英语语法

英语中级语法教程,高中生英语语法

7.10 各种虚拟句型

在英文中,虚拟语气可以分为非真实条件句(unreal conditionals)和名词从句虚拟句两大类。从7.1至7.8节,我们都是在讨论非真实条件虚拟句,在7.9节中讨论了名词从句的虚拟句。除这两大类虚拟句以外,还有其他一些句型表示的虚拟语气。由于无法归入上述任何一类中,在此将一一单列,分别讨论。

7.10.1 在wish后面的宾语从句中

这是读者非常熟悉的一个虚拟句型,它用来表示说话者难以实现的或与事实违背的愿望,具有较强的感情色彩,可分别表示对现在、过去和将来情景的虚拟。

一、对现在的虚拟

即表示对现状的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去时。请看例句:

1 I wish I were a little younger. 我希望我能够年轻一点。

2 I wish I could travel to the moon (but I can't do that). 我希望我能够登上月球(但实际上我不能)。

3 I wish I knew his address (but I don't know his address). 我希望我知道他的地址(但实际上我不知道)。

下面这个句子很有意思:

4 Whenever something goes wrong, I just push this little Reset button and restart. I wish my whole life were like that!

每次电脑出故障的时候,我只要按一下Reset键,电脑就可以重启了。我真希望人生也能如此啊!

事实上,人生不可能如此简单。如果做错事了,想让时光倒流,重新来选择,这是不可能的。

再来看玛丽莲·梦露(Marilyn Monroe)的这句话:

5 Success makes so many people hate you. I wish it weren't that way. It would be wonderful to enjoy success without seeing envy in the eyes of those around you. 成功会让很多人讨厌你,我真希望不要这样。如果在享受成功时,看不到身旁人嫉妒的眼神,那该有多么美好啊。

二、对过去的虚拟

即对过去发生的事情表示遗憾或后悔,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时(had done)或“would/could+现在完成时”,意指从句的谓语动词所表示的动作发生在主句的谓语所表示的动作之前。请看例句:

6 I wish I had been there. 我真希望我当时在那。

7 I wish I had not attended that party. 我真希望我当时没参加那个聚会。

8 I wish I could have gone with you to the concert last night. 我真希望昨晚能和你一起去听音乐会。

9 A: I wish I hadn't hurt Mary's feelings like that. You know I never meant to.

B: The great thing about Mary is that she doesn't hold the grudge. By tomorrow she'll have forgotten all about it.

A:我真希望我没有像那样伤玛丽的感情,你知道我从来不是故意那么做的。

B:别担心,玛丽最大的优点就是从不记仇,到明天她准会把这事全忘记了。

三、对将来的虚拟

指对将来发生的事情表示祝愿,从句的谓语动词用“would/could+动词原形”,意指从句的谓语动词所表示的动作可能发生在主句的谓语所表示的动作之后。

10 A: It's not fun being around Debbie and Mike these days. All they do is quarrel.

B: I've noticed it, too. I wish they would keep their squabbles to themselves.

A:这两天跟黛比和麦克呆在一起真没意思,他们整天就是吵架。

B:我也注意到了,我真希望他们要吵就私下里吵,而不要当着大家的面吵。

11 I wish he could explain what he means. 我希望他能解释一下他是什么意思。

12 I wish you would shut up. 我希望你能闭嘴。

注意,即使将wish改为wished,上述例句谓语的时态仍然不变。

7.10.2 在if only感叹句中

if only表示“但愿”,“要是……就好了”,其用法和wish基本相同,可表示对现在、过去和将来的虚拟,只是比wish具有更强烈的感情色彩。请看例句:

1 If only the rain would stop. (对将来的虚拟)但愿雨能停。

2 If only I were taller. (对现在的虚拟)我的个子要是能高一点就好了。

3 If only he had followed your advice! (对过去的虚拟)他要是听从了你的建议就好了!

另外需要注意的是,可以把only放到句中的位置。比如说:

4 If he had only followed your advice!

请选择下面这句话的意思:

5 If I'd only remembered to lock the door.

A.I would remember if I had locked the door.

B.I didn't remember to bring the door key.

C.I forgot there was a rock near the door.

D.I wish I had locked the door.

正确答案 D。

精品译文

我要是记得锁门就好了。

妙语点睛

从上面这个译文,我们知道选项D正是表达了同样的意思。由此也看到,if only与wish的用法和意义均相同,比如这里wish的后面也是接过去完成时来表示过去虚拟的事件。

7.10.3 在as if/as though引导的从句中

一、表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况有所怀疑,谓语用过去时

1 I really don't care for the way you're speaking to me. It seems as if you were my father.

我真的非常讨厌你和我说话的方式。你听起来就好像是我爸爸。

2 You should live each day as if it were the last and use every second to your advantage. That means setting goals, being involved on campus and in your community, working hard, and most importantly, never giving up! 你们应该把每一态都当作是生命中的最后一天来度过,充分利用每一秒钟。这就意味着要设定目标,融入校园和社区生活,勤奋努力,而最重要的是,永不放弃!

二、表示与过去事实相反,谓语用过去完成时

3 We have not seen each other for ten solid years, but when we encountered on the street that day, we were still so affectionate that it seemed as if not a single day had gone by. 我们已经有整整10年没见了,但是当那天我们在街上遇到时,我们仍然感到无比亲切,就好像时光并未流逝,我们还在10年以前那样。

注意,若从句中的情形是根据现在的迹象作出的推测,有可能发生,则用陈述语气。请看例句:

4 It is becoming dark. It looks as if it's going to rain. 天变黑了,似乎就要下雨。

5 It seems as if he has been to America. 他好像去过美国。

7.10.4 在it is(high)time(that)从句中

该句型表示“该是做什么事的时候了”,含有“晚了一点”的意思,从句中用过去时。请看例句:

1 Don't dawdle away your youth any more. It is time you thought about your future. 不要再浪费青春了,你该考虑自己的将来了。

2 It seems to be high time that this argument were put to an end. 现在似乎是时候结束争吵了。

3 "You are very selfish. It's high time you realized that you are not the most important person in the world," Edgar said to his boss angrily. 埃德加生气地对他老板说:“你太自私了。你早就应该知道,你绝对不是这个世界上最重要的人。”

请在下列对话中体会这种“晚了一点”的含义:

4 Man: The school had the football field redone over the summer.

Woman: It's about time.

Question: What does the woman imply?

A.Summer is a good time for repairs.

B.The field had been in poor shape.

C.It's too hot to play football in the summer.

D.The work on the football field is almost finished.

正确答案 B。

妙语点睛

这里的女士既然说“早就该修了”,其言外之意就是说这个足球场在修缮以前一直不是很好,这正是选项B的意思,所以B正确。

精品译文

男:学校在暑假期间把足球场重新翻修了一下。

女:早就该修了。

5 Man: Let's get this desk in order.

Woman: Yes, it's about time we cleared it off.

Question: What can be inferred about the desk?

A.It isn't placed right.

B.There isn't enough time to clear it off.

C.A new desk has been ordered to replace it.

D.It has needed reorganizing for quite a while.

正确答案 D。

妙语点睛

这里女士既然说“早该整理了”,其言外之意就是说这个桌子一直很乱,比如桌上摆满了东西,早就需要整理了,这正是选项D的意思,所以D正确。

精品译文

男:我们把这张桌子整理一下吧。

女:是的,我们早该整理了。

7.10.5 在would rather,would(just)as soon,would sooner,would prefer等从句中

本节主要讨论would rather的各种句型。首先,would rather后面可以接从句和接动词原形;其次,would rather表示将来、现在或过去时的谓语动词的不同形式。

一、would rather do sth.

would rather的后面接动词原形,可以表示将来或现在的事件,意指“主语宁愿自己做某事”。这是would rather最常见的用法。请看例句:

1 I would rather go there tomorrow. 我想明天去那里。

如果要和另外一件事情来比较,这时要用than来引出另外的事情。比如:

2 He would rather stay at home than go to the cinema tonight. 他今晚就想在家里呆着,而不想去看电影。

注意,对该句型的否定,要在动词的前面加not,而不是在would的后面加not。例如:

3 1)He would rather not stay at home tonight. 他今晚不想在家呆着。

2)He would not rather stay at home tonight. *(错误)

二、would rather have done sth.

这是would rather后面接动词完成式的用法,表示过去的事件,意指“主语宁愿自己过去做了某事,但实际上没有做”,因此,具有过去虚拟的意味,如同过去虚拟条件主句的谓语形式。请看例句:

4 I took Sally to the cinema last night, but I would rather have been there alone.

妙语点睛

这里的would rather have been表示对过去的虚拟,意思是“还不如自己一个人去”,但实际上不是一个人去的。

精品译文

我昨晚带萨丽看电影去了,可是我还不如自己一个人去呢(真不该带她去)。

5 I'm eager to acquire knowledge. For my ninth birthday, my father gave me a set of the World Book Encyclopedia. Although I would rather have received a set of transformers, as I look back I realize that my dad made the right decision.

妙语点睛

这里的would rather have received(a set of transformers)表示对过去的虚拟,意思是“本来希望自己收到(一套变形金刚)”,但实际上没有收到。

精品译文

我非常渴望学习知识。记得在我九岁生日的时候,我爸爸送给了我一套《世界百科全书》。当时我还想,他倒不如送我一套变形金刚更好。但是现在回想起来,我还是觉得爸爸当时的决定是对的。

6 I would rather have had one breath of her hair, one kiss of her mouth, one touch of her hand than an eternity without it.

妙语点睛

这句话来自美国电影《天使之城》(The City of Angels),这是由尼古拉斯·凯奇(Nicholas Cage)主演的天使说的。

精品译文

如果可以呼吸到她散发在空气中的发香、轻吻她的双唇、抚摸她的双手,那么我宁愿放弃永生。

三、would rather sb. did

这是would rather后面接从句的用法,意指“主语宁愿让另一个人做某事”。这里从句的谓语用一般过去式,但表示的是现在或将来的事件,如同现在虚拟条件从句的谓语形式。请看例句:

7 Don't come tomorrow. I'd rather you came next weekend.

妙语点睛

我们看到,这里的时间状语next weekend显然是表示一个将来的时间,但句子的谓语却用了came这样的一般过去式,而不用will come,甚至也不用would come。

精品译文

明天就别来了,我希望你下周末过来。

8 She says she'd rather he left tomorrow instead of today.

妙语点睛

同样道理,尽管有将来的时间状语tomorrow,但句子的谓语却用了left这样的一般过去式,而不用will leave,甚至也不用would leave。

精品译文

她说她希望他明天走,而不是今天。

四、would rather sb. had done

这是would rather后面接从句的用法,意指“主语宁愿别人过去做了某事,但实际上没有做”。这里从句的谓语用过去完成时表示过去的事件,如同过去虚拟条件从句的谓语形式。请看例句:

9 For my ninth birthday, my father gave me a set of the World Book Encyclopedia. But I would rather he had given me a set of transformers. 在我九岁生日的时候,我爸爸送给了我一套《世界百科全书》,可是我倒希望他能送我一套变形金刚更好。

其他的结构,如would(just)as soon,would sooner和would prefer在接从句时,完全如同would rather的虚拟用法,在此不再赘述。请看例句:

10 I'd just as soon you didn't speak rudely to her. 我希望你不要那么粗鲁地对她说话。

11 I'd as soon you hadn't spoken rudely to her. 我希望你当时没有那么粗鲁地对她说话。

最后,我们再来看一个might just as well接完成时的虚拟表达:

12 Our holidays were ruined by the weather — we might just as well have stayed at home.

妙语点睛

这完全类似于would rather have done的意义和用法,都表示对过去的虚拟,意思是“还不如呆在家里”,但实际上没有这么做,而是出去度假了,但天气不好,玩得并不开心。

精品译文

因为天气的原因,我们的假期全给毁了。我们还不如就在家里呆着哪也不去呢!

 

思维训练

Exercise 7.10

请选择最佳答案填空。

1.I wish I_________with you to the concert last night.

A.could have gone

B.went

C.could go

D.have gone

2.Sometimes I wish I_________in a different time and a different place. (CET-4)

A.be living

B.were living

C.would live

D.would have lived

3.Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I________your advice. (CET-4)

A.follow

B.had followed

C.would follow

D.have followed

4.It seems to be high time that this argument_________put to an end.

A.must be

B.is

C.were

D.should be

5."You are very selfish. It's high time you_________that you are not the most important person in the world," Edgar said to his boss angrily. (CET-4)

A.realized

B.have realized

C.realize

D.should realize

6.You don't have to be in such a hurry. I would rather you_________on business first. (CET-4)

A.would go

B.will go

C.went

D.have gone

7.Wouldn't you rather your child_________to bed early? (CET-4)

A.go

B.went

C.would go

D.goes

写给读者的话


一、本章学习思路

虚拟语气是英语谓语动词的重要变化形式之一,也是比较难以理解和掌握的一大类语法项目,原因是汉语的思维表达中天然缺失虚拟语气。

另一方面,虚拟语气其实也是情态动词的一种用法,所以读者应该把本章内容和下一章有关情态动词的内容结合起来学习,这样就可以更加全面而深入地理解情态动词的用法。

本章内容相当于是情态动词的虚拟用法。该用法的内容包括三部分:

第一,非真实条件虚拟句(unreal conditionals),这包括从7.1至7.8节的所有内容,这是虚拟语气的重点内容,占据虚拟语气内容的90%。

第二,名词从句虚拟句,就是在7.9节中讨论的内容。

第三,除了上述这两大类虚拟句外,还有其他一些用于虚拟的句型结构,就是在7.10节中讨论的内容。

二、本章重点及难点

在上述三大类虚拟的内容中,重点要掌握非真实条件句。读者首先要熟练掌握三种基本的虚拟结构:7.2节中讨论的将来虚拟(ZjCj)、7.3节中讨论的现在虚拟(ZxCx)以及7.4节中讨论的过去虚拟(ZgCg)。然后在此基础上,熟练辨别和把握7.5节中讨论的混合虚拟(一):主句现在+从句过去(ZxCg)、7.7节中讨论的倒装虚拟和7.8节中讨论的跳层虚拟句。

三、本章学习时间安排

本章的内容多而且也是比较难的,因此读者需要下功夫、花时间学好。建议读者可以花3周的时间来研读本章所讲解的所有内容,边读边思考、消化和总结,并做相应的练习。读者需要反复阅读和理解本章的内容,至少四遍以上,要真正做到融会贯通,全面理解和掌握。但是,若要真正达到我们前面提到的使用虚拟语气的“口语阶段”,则需要多多实践,方能做到运用自如,从而真正地把虚拟语气融入成为自己的思维表达中,成为自己思维的一部分。


综合练习

1.George would certainly have attended the proceedings________.

A.had he not had a flat tire

B.had the tire no flattened itself

C.if the flat tire hadn't happened

D.if he didn't get a flat tire

2.Nelson____________the fight, with a little more training and a better manager.

A.would win

B.had won

C.could have won

D.won

3.If I_________my own clothes, I________a lot of money.

A.had made/would save

B.could make/would save

C.can make/would save

D.could make/will save

4.Thank goodness, it's all over. I________it if I________it was going to take me so long.

A.would never have done/had known

B.would never do/knew

C.would never have done/knew

D.would never do/had known

5.He was fully occupied yesterday, otherwise he________to the sales conference.

A.would come

B.would have come

C.came

D.had come

6.Without computers, the world________what it is today.

A.would be

B.would not be

C.won't be

D.hadn't been

7.________I realized the consequences, I would never have contemplated getting involved.

A.If

B.Had

C.When

D.Unless

8.He had to drive fast yesterday; otherwise he________his plane.

A.had missed

B.would be missing

C.would have missed

D.would miss

9.________the sense of someone watching them, Ralph would have shouted at his wife.

A.Despite

B.Except

C.But for

D.Except for

10.Any man in his position________like that.

A.has done

B.would have done

C.does

D.would be done

11.We didn't know his address; otherwise we________an invitation to him.

A.would have sent

B.must have sent

C.had sent

D.would send

12.Sometimes I have thought it would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we________tomorrow.

A.should die

B.are to die

C.were dying

D.must die

13.The boy would have died,________on him without delay.

A.if the doctor didn't operate

B.if the doctor wouldn't operate

C.would the doctor not operate

D.had the doctor not operated

14.If Greek civilization________all of Europe, English wouldn't contain so many Greek words.

A.hadn't influenced

B.doesn't influence

C.hasn't influenced

D.didn't influence

15.If television________a thousand years ago, would nations be significantly more homogeneous than they are now?

A.were invented

B.was invented

C.has been invented

D.had been invented

16.At the conference, it has been decided that she________an opportunity to go abroad as a sales representative.

A.is going to have

B.have

C.will have

D.has

17.It is extremely urgent that they________from the mountain before dark.

A.must rescue

B.be rescued

C.will be rescued

D.shall be rescued

18.The women's magazines, deploring the statistics, urged that courses on marriage, and marriage counselors,________in the high schools.

A.installed

B.be installed

C.have been installed

D.installing

19.I intend to move that our committee________Tom as chairman, and I hope that you will second my motion.

A.will appoint

B.appoint

C.appoints

D.has appointed

20.The dean approved of the requirement that every student________on social investigation after summer vacation.

A.reports

B.report

C.reported

D.reporting

21.I second Mr. Wang's motion that a special committee________to examine the problem.

A.be established

B.established

C.was to establish

D.was established

22."I wish you________the play last night."

"It's a shame that I________.

A.had attended/didn't

B.attended/didn't

C.had attended/hadn't

D.could attend/haven't

23.The picture exhibition bored me to death. I wish I________to it.

A.have not gone

B.had not gone

C.didn't go

D.should not have gone

24.It was a lovely day yesterday. I________I had been at the seaside then.

A.think

B.wish

C.hope

D.expect

25.It's about time I________something about home-decorating.

A.learn

B.learned

C.have learned

D.should learn

26.If only we________a phone! I'm tired of queuing outside the public phone box.

A.had

B.had had

C.would have

D.have had

27.The manager would rather his daughter________in the same office.

A.had not worked

B.not no work

C.does not work

D.did not work

28.He would rather________than worked last night.

A.have slept

B.has slept

C.sleep

D.slept

29.Frankly, I'd rather you________anything about it for the time being as it has not yet been decided.

A.did

B.didn't do

C.didn't

D.don't

30.She would rather that you________last night.

A.not arrive

B.do not arrive

C.had not arrived

D.did not arrive

31.In the United States a law requires that a warning label________on cigarette packages.

A.ought to be printed

B.needs to be printed

C.must be printed

D.should be printed

32.It is high time that the third world countries________a more active part in economic affairs of the world.

A.play

B.were playing

C.played

D.had played

33.If the United States had built more homes for people in 1995, the housing problems now in some parts of this country________so serious.

A.wouldn't be

B.will not have been

C.wouldn't have been

D.would have not been

34.At the last conference, the motion that the chairman of the International Olympic Games________was defeated.

A.would be dismissed

B.be dismissed

C.were dismissed

D.was dismissed

35.If the climate had been more favorable, the crops________still better.

A.would have grown

B.would be growing

C.would be grown

D.will grow

36.These facts suggested that women________in opportunity for physical exercise by cultural taboos.

A.should been limited

B.had been limited

C.be limited

D.have been limited

37.I would very much like to have gone to see the movie, but I________a ticket.

A.shall not have

B.haven't had

C.don't have

D.didn't have

38.The result has turned still worse than it________

A.would otherwise have been

B.would be otherwise

C.has otherwise been

D.had otherwise been

39.The stubborn young man did not follow the advice that he________on his behavior since he refused to believe he had done anything wrong.

A.reflect

B.had reflected

C.would reflect

D.must reflect

40.________for your help, we'd never have been able to get over the difficulties.

A.Had it not been

B.Had it not

C.If it were not

D.If we had not been

41.The storm delayed us.________the storm we would have been in time.

A.For

B.Were it not for

C.Had it not been for

D.But

42.The party__________at my house, but the central heating broke down, and we had to have it at John's place.

A.would be

B.would have been

C.was to be

D.were

43.We are all for your proposal that the discussion_________.

A.be put off

B.was put off

C.should put off

D.is to put off

44.He turned down her proposal that she__________at the conference.

A.should offer

B.offer

C.offered

D.offering

45.What do you think of Tom's proposal that__________put on the play at tonight's English evening?

A.we will not

B.we not

C.we hadn't

D.we wouldn't

46.The school board listened quickly as John read the demands that his followers_________for.

A.be demonstrating

B.demonstrate

C.had been demonstrating

D.have demonstrated

47.It was suggested at the meeting that effective measures_________to solve the problem.

A.be taken

B.were taken

C.must be taken

D.take

48.It is desirable that the doctor________there at the moment.

A.be

B.would be

C.will be

D.must be

49.I propose that a woman________deputy to the district congress.

A.would be nominated

B.was nominated

C.is nominated

D.be nominated

50.Her mother insists that she________skating with her brother.

A.went

B.go

C.goes

D.will go

51.I move that he________discharged for his serious mistake.

A.be to be

B.was to be

C.is to be

D.would be

52.These national parks are very important for preserving many animals, who would________run the risk of becoming extinct.

A.instead

B.nevertheless

C.therefore

D.otherwise

53.We went to work on foot yesterday, though we________by bus.

A.could have gone

B.must have gone

C.ought to have gone

D.had better to

54.One of the requirements for a fire is that the material________to its burning temperature.

A.is heated

B.will be heated

C.be heated

D.would be heated

55.It is advisable that a general announcement_________to the teaching staff.

A.will be made

B.should make

C.be made

D.have been made

56.Abraham Lincoln insisted that________not just on mere opinion but on moral purpose.

A.to base democracy

B.for democracy to be based

C.democracy be based

D.whenever democracy is based

57.Mr. Smith didn't phone me last night, but he________.

A.might have to

B.would do

C.had to

D.should have

58.It is essential that these application forms_________back as early as possible.

A.must be sent

B.will be sent

C.are sent

D.be sent

59.I'd rather you_________make any comment on the issue for the time being.

A.don't

B.wouldn't

C.didn't

D.shouldn't

60.Had he worked harder, he________the exams.

A.must have got through

B.would have got through

C.would get through

D.could get through

61.I don't think it advisable that Tim_________to the job since he has no experience.

A.is assigned

B.will be assigned

C.be assigned

D.has been assigned

62.If only the committee__________the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

A.approve

B.will approve

C.can approve

D.would approve

63.It is vital that enough money_______to fund the project.

A.be collected

B.is collected

C.must be collected

D.can be collected

64.You_________her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for two weeks.

A.needn't have seen

B.must have seen

C.might have seen

D.can't have seen

65.Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that if she________a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often.

A.has to get

B.were to get

C.had

D.could have got

66.The local peasants gave the soldiers clothes and food, without which they_________of hunger and cold.

A.would dead

B.will die

C.would be dead

D.would have died

67.It is recommended that the project_________until all the preparations have been made.

A.is not started

B.will not be started

C.not be started

D.is not to be started

68.I wish I_________longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.

A.could have slept

B.slept

C.might sleep

D.have slept

69.We desire that the tour leader________us immediately of any change in plans.

A.inform

B.informs

C.informed

D.had informed

70.He suggested__________to tomorrow's exhibition together.

A.us to go

B.we went

C.we shall go

D.we go

71.John's score on the test is the highest in the class; he________hard last weekend.

A.should have studied

B.must have studied

C.would have studied

D.should study

72.The room is in a terrible mess; it_________cleaned.

A.can't have been

B.shouldn't have been

C.mustn't have been

D.wouldn't have been

73.Sally can't have been in Paris, or_______

A.I met

B.I'd met

C.I'll meet him

D.I'd have met

74.Research findings show we spend about two hours dreaming every night, no matter what we_________during the day.

A.should have done

B.would have done

C.may have done

D.must have done

75.To be frank, I'd rather you________in the case.

A.not to be involved

B.not involved

C.will no be involved

D.were not involved

76.It seems to be high time that this argument_________put to an end.

A.must be

B.is

C.were

D.should be

77.The dentist said that my tooth went worse and I__________it pulled out.

A.should have had

B.might have had

C.needn't have had

D.mustn't have had

78.The business is risky. But________, we would be rich.

A.should we succeed

B.would we succeed

C.might we succeed

D.could we succeed

79.If we hadn't been interrupted the day before yesterday, we_________the job.

A.would do

B.would not have done

C.had done

D.would have done

80.It is decided that no smoking_________in public places from now on.

A.be allowed

B.is allowed

C.will be allowed

D.should have been allowed

81.The Reform club proposed that wages_______.

A.would be raised

B.were raised

C.would have been raised

D.be raised

82.Through worldly loss he came to an insight into spiritual truth to which he might________have been a stranger.

A.no more

B.no less

C.neither

D.otherwise

83._________yesterday, I would have asked him not to do that.

A.Had he come

B.Provided he came

C.If he came

D.Has he come

84.It is highly necessary that the rocket________until all the preparations have been made.

A.is not to be launched

B.not be launched

C.were not launched

D.is not to be launched

85.I had intended to go to the airport yesterday, in which case I_________the guests.

A.might meet

B.would meet

C.might have met

D.had met

86.It is generally thought to be necessary to a college student that he_______at least on foreign language.

A.know

B.knows

C.knew

D.would know

辨别改错:

87.I'd rather you (A) would go by train, because I (B) can't bear the idea of (C) your being in an airplane in (D) such bad weather.

88.Your math instructor (A) would have been happy to give you a makeup examination (B) had you gone and (C) explained that your parents (D) had been ill at the time.

89.I don't think (A) it advisable that he (B) will be assigned to the job since he has (C) no experience (D) whatsoever.

90.The law I am referring (A) to requires that (B) everyone who (C) owns a car (D) has accident insurance.

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