目录
写在前面 序言 第一章 简单句与复合句 1.1 引言 1.2 句型一:主语+系动词+表语 1.2.1 谓语动词的特点 1.2.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.3 句型二:主语+谓语 1.3.1 谓语动词的特点 1.3.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.4 句型三:主语+谓语+宾语 1.4.1 谓语动词的特点 1.4.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.5 句型四:主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语 1.5.1 谓语动词的特点 1.5.2 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.6 句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 1.6.1 谓语动词的特点 1.6.2 区分双宾语和复合宾语 1.6.3 简单句叠加成复杂难句 1.7 从简单句到复合句 第二章 名词从句 2.1 简单句与名词从句 2.1.1 何谓名词从句? 2.1.2 陈述句作句子成分 2.1.3 一般疑问句作句子成分 2.1.4 特殊疑问句作句子成分 2.1.5 引导名词从句的连接词 2.2 简单句与主语从句 2.2.1 陈述句作主语 2.2.2 一般疑问句作主语 2.2.3 特殊疑问句作主语 2.3 简单句与宾语从句 2.3.1 陈述句作宾语 2.3.2 一般疑问句作宾语 2.3.3 特殊疑问句作宾语 2.4 简单句与表语从句 2.4.1 陈述句作表语 2.4.2 一般疑问句作表语 2.4.3 特殊疑问句作表语 2.5 简单句与同位语从句 2.5.1 陈述句作同位语 2.5.2 一般疑问句作同位语 2.5.3 特殊疑问句作同位语 第三章 定语从句 3.1 定语从句概述 3.1.1 形容词作定语与从句作定语比较 3.1.2 定语从句的两个重要概念:先行词和关系词 3.2 关系词在定语从句充当的成分 3.2.1 关系词用作从句的主语 3.2.2 关系词用作从句中动词的宾语 3.2.3 关系词用作从句中介词的宾语 3.2.4 作宾语的关系词可以省去 3.3 关系代词与先行词的搭配关系 3.3.1 先行词指“人”,用关系代词who或whom 3.3.2 表示人或物的所有关系,用whose 3.3.3 先行词指“物”,用关系代词which 3.3.4 that可以指代“人”,也可以指代“物” 3.4 关系副词的用法 3.4.1 when的用法 3.4.2 where的用法 3.4.3 why的用法 3.5 限制性与非限制性定语从句 3.5.1 限制性定语从句——不用逗号隔开 3.5.2 非限制性定语从句——用逗号隔开 3.5.3 用或不用逗号,句义有差别 3.5.4 非限制性定语从句的翻译 3.6 定语从句与同位语从句的区分 3.6.1 从结构上区分:that是否作成分 3.6.2 从意义上区分:that引导的从句的意义不同 第四章 状语从句 4.1 时间状语从句 4.1.1 时间连词when的用法特点 4.1.2 时间连词while的用法特点 4.1.3 时间连词until的用法特点 4.1.4 表示“一……就”的结构 4.2 地点状语从句 4.3 原因状语从句 4.3.1 常见连词的用法 4.3.2 用介词表示因果关系 4.4 目的状语从句 4.5 结果状语从句 4.5.1 常见连词的用法 4.5.2 结果状语从句的倒装 4.6 条件状语从句 4.6.1 常见连词的用法 4.6.2 其他条件状语从句的连词 4.7 让步状语从句 4.7.1 常见连词的用法 4.7.2 表示让步转折关系的介词 4.7.3 置于句首的while一般表示“尽管” 4.7.4 as引导的倒装句表示让步 4.8 比较状语从句 4.8.1 连词as的基本用法 4.8.2 连词than的基本用法 4.8.3 表示倍数比较的三种句型结构 4.8.4 the more..., the more 句型结构 4.9 方式状语从句 第五章 完成时态 5.1 完成时态的构成 5.2 完成时态的意义 5.3 “回顾”思维 5.4 延续事件 5.4.1 过去的事件“延续”到现在 5.4.2 “延续事件”与时间状语的关系 5.5 重复事件 5.5.1 过去的事件“重复”到现在 5.5.2 “重复事件”与时间状语的关系 5.6 单一事件 5.6.1 何谓“对现在有影响”? 5.6.2 何谓“过去事件”? 5.6.3 新闻热点(hot news)——近的过去 5.6.4 过去经历(past experience)——远的过去 5.6.5 “单一事件”与时间状语的关系 5.7 “延续事件”、“重复事件”与“单一事件”之间的相互关系 5.7.1 延续事件与单一事件 5.7.2 延续事件与重复事件 5.7.3 重复事件与单一事件 5.7.4 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的一般现在时态 5.7.5 “动作表达”的完成时态与“状态表达”的完成时态 5.8 完成时态用于最高级的句型 5.9 时间连词since的特殊用法 5.10 过去完成时态 5.10.1 在“过去”回顾“更远的过去” 5.10.2 延续事件、重复事件和单一事件的过去完成时 5.10.3 过去完成时的其他意义和用法 5.10.4 过去完成时与一般过去时的比较 5.11 将来完成时 5.11.1 将来完成动作的开始时间 5.11.2 将来完成时的三种思维用法 第六章 完成进行时态 6.1 完成进行时态的构成 6.2 完成进行时态的意义 6.3 延续事件 6.3.1 延续事件概述 6.3.2 延续事件(一):长期在延续的事件 6.3.3 延续事件(二):近期在延续的事件 6.3.4 延续事件(三):在说话时刻仍在延续的事件 6.3.5 延续事件(四):在说话时刻之前在延续的事件(即刚刚在延续的事件) 6.4 延续事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.4.1 比较(一):完成进行时“刚刚在延续的事件”与完成时“单一事件” 6.4.2 比较(二):完成进行时的“延续”与完成时的“延续” 6.5 重复事件 6.5.1 重复事件(一):短暂动词 6.5.2 重复事件(二):有限延续动词 6.6 重复事件比较:完成进行时与完成时 6.6.1 比较(三):重复动作的分割性 6.6.2 比较(四):短暂动词用于完成进行时来表示重复活动 6.6.3 完成进行时的“重复事件”与一般现在时的“重复事件” 6.7 完成进行时与完成时对比总结 6.7.1 比较(五):完成进行时强调“延续过程”,完成时强调“成果” 6.7.2 现在完成进行时与现在完成时的思维差异总结 6.8 过去完成进行时 6.8.1 过去时刻在延续的事件 6.8.2 在过去时刻重复发生的事件 6.9 将来完成进行时 第七章 虚拟语气 7.1 引言 7.1.1 把U和I放在一起 7.1.2 虚拟条件句:两类三时 7.1.3 虚拟条件句的谓语变化 j x g g x 7.7 倒装虚拟 7.8 跳层虚拟 7.8.1 陈述句+or+虚拟主句 7.8.2 虚拟主句+but+陈述句 7.9 名词从句如何使用虚拟 7.9.1 在下列词的宾语从句中 7.9.2 在it is+形容词或过去分词或特定的名词+that的主语从句中 7.9.3 在上述名词的表语从句和同位语从句中 7.10 各种虚拟句型 7.10.1 在wish后面的宾语从句中 7.10.2 在if only感叹句中 7.10.3 在as if / as though引导的从句中 7.10.4 在it is (high) time (that)从句中 7.10.5 在would rather,would (just) as soon,would sooner,would prefer等从句中 第八章 情态动词 8.1 引言:多情多义的情态动词 8.1.1 情态动词的“全家福” 8.1.2 情态动词的意义 8.1.3 情态动词的结构搭配与意义关系 8.2 推测用法(一):现在推测(情态动词+一般式) 8.2.1 对现在的肯定推测 8.2.2 对现在的否定推测 8.2.3 对现在推测的其他情态动词 8.3 推测用法(二):将来预测(情态动词+一般式) 8.4 推测用法(三):过去推测(情态动词+完成式) 8.5 推测用法(四):情态动词+(完成)进行式 8.6 基本用法(一):现在或将来的能力 8.7 基本用法(二):现实“可能”与理论“可能” 8.8 基本用法(三):过去的能力 8.9 基本用法(四):许可 8.9.1 肯定句——给予许可 8.9.2 否定句——拒绝许可,甚至禁止 8.9.3 could一般不用来表示现在的许可,而表示过去的许可 8.10 基本用法(五):建议与忠告 8.10.1 could表示建议 8.10.2 Shall I...? Shall we...? 8.10.3 may (just) as well, might (just) as well 8.10.4 should和ought to表示忠告 8.10.5 should表示“忠告”与could表示“建议”比较 8.10.6 had better表示“忠告” 8.11 基本用法(六):意愿、意图与执意 8.11.1 意图(intention) 8.11.2 执意(insistence) 8.12 基本用法(七):请求 8.13 基本用法(八):过去习惯 8.14 基本用法(九):should的特殊用法 8.14.1 should表示“竟然” 8.14.2 should表示“万一” 8.15 基本用法(十):shall的特殊用法 8.15.1 用于第一人称的疑问句中:Shall I/we...? 8.15.2 用于第三人称的疑问句中 8.15.3 用于第二、三人称的陈述句中 8.16 基本用法(十一):may的特殊用法 8.17 情态动词的否定 8.17.1 情态动词否定意义的深层结构——内部否定和外部否定 8.17.2 内部否定和外部否定的使用规律 8.18 总结:英文情态与中文情态的简单对比 8.18.1 英文情态意义与中文情态意义的对应性 8.18.2 英文情态动词的委婉表达在汉语中的缺失 附录 答案解析 结语

中级英语语法

英语中级语法教程,高中生英语语法

5.10 过去完成时态

5.3节中讲过,完成时态的本质思维就是用来“回顾”。比如现在完成时就是站在“现在时间”的角度回顾过去,表示一个从过去持续到现在的事件。同理类推,过去完成时就是站在“过去时间”的角度回顾更远的另一个过去,表示一个事件从这个更远的过去持续到离现在较近的过去。所以,对于过去完成时态的用法,关键首先是要确定过去时间的坐标,这一点将在下一节中详细讨论。过去完成时同现在完成时一样,可以表示延续事件、重复事件和单一事件这三种意义。因此,本节内容安排如下:

5.10.1在“过去”回顾“更远的过去”

5.10.2延续事件、重复事件和单一事件的过去完成时

5.10.3过去完成时的其他意义和用法

5.10.4过去完成时与一般过去时的比较

5.10.1 在“过去”回顾“更远的过去”

完成时态本质的思维特征就是“回顾”。现在完成时态就是站在“现在”回顾“过去”,而过去完成时态就是站在“过去”回顾“更远的过去”。现在完成时态以“现在”作为时间参照物来谈论过去,过去完成时态则是以“过去”作为时间参照物来谈论更远的过去。因此,可以说现在完成时和过去完成时本质的思维是一样的,区别只是参照的时间不同——前者是“现在”,而后者是“过去”。

现在完成时态的参照时间“现在”往往潜含在语境中,并不需要明确地表达出来。比如我们说:

1 I have been a school teacher for 28 years.

妙语点睛

这里的for 28 years就是表现距离现在有“28年”了,相当于说:I have been a school teacher for 28 years now.

精品译文

我当老师到现在有28年了。

再比如,其他用于现在完成时态的典型时间状语,如since 1980表示“自从1980年以来”,这里显然是指从1980年一直到“现在”。所以,现在完成时态的参照时间“现在”可以隐含在语境中而不明确地说出来

但是,对于过去完成时态,其参照时间“过去”则一般是要明确地在上下文中给出来的。说得更具体点,就是必须先有一个过去时,然后以这个过去时作为参照的时间点,来谈论更远的过去,此时这个更远的过去才能用过去完成时态。因此,过去完成时态可以说是一个不能独立使用的时态,它必须依附于一个在上下文中出现的一般过去时。下面我们通过一个故事——《最珍贵的礼物》,来阐明过去完成时与一般过去时的这种依赖关系。

(一)

最珍贵的礼物

曾经读到过这样一个故事,说的是一个小男孩从一个老人那里听说,在这个世界上有一份最好的礼物,谁要是能得到它谁就会永远幸福(It is the best present a person can receive because anyone who receives such a gift is happy forever.)这个礼物叫做The Precious Present。

小男孩心想:“真希望有人能把它作为圣诞节礼物送给我。”进而又一想,他就十分纳闷了:“什么样的礼物会如此神奇呢,竟然能让拥有它的人永远幸福?”他发现自己很难找到答案,于是,就去问那位老人。

“它是一个魔戒吗?带上它之后就能让我所有的愿望都实现?”老人说:“不是。The Precious Present与你的愿望无关。”

“它是一块神奇的飞毯吗?坐上它就能带我去任何我想去的地方?”老人说:“不是。The Precious Present能让你无论身在何处,都会感到无比幸福。”

岁月流逝,小男孩现在已经长大成人,但他心中对那份神秘的礼物依然念念不忘。于是他又去问那位老人。

“您说的The Precious Present难道是海底的珍宝吗?比如说,是很久以前被海盗埋在海底的金币?”老人说:“不是。或者说它的确是珍宝,但与金币无关。”

对于老人一再否定的回答,这位年轻人备受打击,他开始有些不耐烦了,甚至是生气。他对老人愤愤地说:“如果您想让我幸福,那您为什么不直接告诉我The Precious Present到底是什么呢?还有,为什么不告诉我在哪里才能找到它呢?”老人无奈地说:“我的孩子,我无法告诉你,也无法给你,因为这个礼物除了你自己,其他任何人都无法送给你(The Precious Present is not something that someone gives you. It is a gift that you give yourself.)”

听了老人这番话,年轻人更加糊涂了。但不管怎样,他已决定自己去寻找The Precious Present。

于是,他背起背包,动身去寻找那梦想中最珍贵的礼物。

然而,他历经数年苦苦寻求,却终无所获,失望而归。他现在已渐渐对找寻礼物失去了信心,因为他已经翻阅无数典籍,走访众人,足迹踏遍险峻的山巅、阴冷的山洞、湿热的密林和浩淼的大海。他已历经千辛万苦,因为他曾经如此想得到这份珍贵的礼物。但他苦苦的寻求换来的却是身心疲惫,一无所获。

最后,他又重新回到老人的身边……

(He packed his bags. He left where he was and went elsewhere to look for The Precious Present.

After many frustrating years, the man grew tired of looking for The Precious Present. He had read all the latest books. He had looked in the mirror and into the faces of other people. He had looked for it at the tops of mountains and in cold dark caves. He had searched for it in dense, humid jungles and underneath the seas. He had gone to extraordinary lengths. He had wanted so much to find The Precious Present. But it was all to no avail. His stressful search had exhausted him.

The man returned wearily to the old man's side...)

故事讲到这里,聪明的读者朋友一定知道了,这份能让我们永远幸福的“最珍贵的礼物”是什么了吧?现在言归正传,来分析一下上文中的过去完成时态(had done)的思维和用法。

在上面的故事中,开头几句用的是一般过去时态(如the man grew tired of looking for The Precious Present),但其他黑体部分用的是过去完成时态:

2 He had read all the latest books.

3 He had looked in the mirror and into the faces of other people.

4 He had looked for it at the tops of mountains and in cold dark caves.

5 He had searched for it in dense, humid jungles and underneath the seas.

6 He had gone to extraordinary lengths.

7 He had wanted so much to find The Precious Present.

8 His stressful search had exhausted him.

这是因为在英语思考方式里,陈述一件过去的事件(如上文中的the man grew tired of looking for The Precious Present)的时候,再回顾联想到在这个过去的事件之前所发生的另外一个事件(如He had read all the latest books.),对这个“过去之前的过去(the past before the past)”就须用“过去完成时态(had done)”的动词形式。换言之,过去完成时是站在“过去时间”的角度回顾更远的过去,即谈的是“过去的过去”的情况。从这个意义上讲,过去完成时态是一个不能独立存在的时态,它必须依附于一个一般过去时态,也就是说,要先有一般过去时态,才可能有过去完成时态

比如在上文中,grew表示过去,而接下来的一系列活动都是发生在grew之前的,所以都用了过去完成时态,说成had read, had looked in, had looked for, had searched, had gone, had wanted和had exhausted等。

现在我们再回到刚才讲的故事中。当历经数年苦寻而终无结果之后,这位unhappy young man决定放弃寻找。而此时奇迹出现了,他突然顿悟:原来自己苦苦寻找的、希望能带给自己永远幸福的“最珍贵的礼物”——不是过去,不是将来,而是现在,是最宝贵的当下的生活(The Precious Present is just The Present, not the past and not the future, but The Precious Present.)!

最珍贵的礼物The Precious Present不就是最珍贵的现在时刻(The Precious Present)吗?而每一个现在时刻的幸福不就是永远的幸福吗?

其实,这个故事要告诉我们的道理很简单,就是要活在当下!因为:

My past was the Present; my future will be the Present. The Present moment is the only reality I ever experience. As long as I continue to stay in the Present, I am happy forever: because Forever is always the Present! The Precious Present is something precious that I can give to and receive from myself, for I am precious. I am The Precious Present!

(二)

下面来看第二个故事。这是马克·吐温(Mark Twain)写的一篇关于自己母亲的文章,题目是This Was My Mother:

9 This Was My Mother

She was 82 and living in Keoluk when, unaccountably, she insisted upon attending a convention of old settlers of the Mississippi Valley. All the way there, and it was some distance, she was young again with excitement and eagerness. At the hotel she asked immediately for Dr. Barrett, of St. Louis. He had left for home that morning and would not be back, she was told. She turned away, the fire all gone from her, and asked to go home. Once there she sat silent and thinking for many days, then told us that when she was 18 she had loved a young medical student with all her heart. There was a misunderstanding and he left the country; she had immediately married, to show him that she did not care. She had never seen him since and then she had read in a newspaper that he was going to attend the old settlers' convention. "Only three hours before we reached that hotel he had been there," she mourned.

She had kept that pathetic burden in her heart 64 years without any of us suspecting it. Before the year was out, her memory began to fail. She would write letters to school-mates who had been dead 40 years and wonder why they never answered. Four years later she died.

妙语点睛

文章一开始,作者就说This Was My Mother,过去时was表明“母亲”已经不在人世,那么后面的经历都是过去的,这个was就为下文的过去完成时态奠定了“过去”的时间视角。在翻译时,如果把This Was My Mother简单直白地译成“这是我的母亲”,那么显然没有译出was的含义。我们不妨把它译成“回忆母亲”,用“回忆”表明母亲已不在人世——与英语的was有异曲同工之妙。

文章最后说道,母亲的记忆力差了,但尽管如此,母亲依然记得自己的初恋。这一段感情母亲深藏了64年,而且至今依然爱着,这就是为什么母亲非得坚持去参加那个聚会。

精品译文

回忆母亲

那年母亲82岁高龄,生活在科鲁克小镇。有一天,她无缘无故地非得坚持要去参加密西西比河谷老居民聚会。尽管离聚会地点还有挺长的一段路程,但是在去那里的一路上,她青春焕发、神采奕奕的,心中满是兴奋与盼望。一到聚会的酒店,她就立即打听有没有来自圣路易斯市的巴雷特医生的消息。有人告诉她说,他那天一早就回家了,再也不回来了。母亲马上转过脸去,神色黯然,并要求回家。有一次,她静静地坐着,呆呆地想了好几天,然后告诉我们说,她在18岁的时候曾经全心地爱过一个医学院的年轻学生。后来两人之间产生了误会,他离开了那个乡村,而她很快就结了婚,以向他表示自己并不在意(两人间曾经的感情)。从那以后,母亲就再也没有见过他了。后来,她在一份报纸上读到一则消息说,他要来参加那个居民聚会。“就在我们到达那家酒店三个小时前他还在那里”,母亲哀伤地说道。

64年间,母亲心里一直有这么一个感情的疙瘩,可是我们谁也不知道。随着岁月的流逝,母亲的记忆力开始衰退,所以,尽管她当时的那些校友去世了都有40年了,但母亲依然经常给他们写信,还纳闷他们为什么从不回信。四年后,母亲去世了。

现在来分析其中的过去完成时态:

1) At the hotel she asked immediately for Dr. Barrett, of St. Louis. He had left for home that morning and would not be back, she was told.

妙语点睛

这里的had left是发生在过去的动作asked之前的,所以用了过去完成时。

另外值得注意的是,这里还有一个具体的过去时间that morning。对于这样一个具体的过去时间,句子若采用一般过去时态是没有问题的,而这里用了过去完成时态。由此可见,过去完成时态可以与具体的过去时间状语连用。这不同于现在完成时态,因为现在完成时态是绝对不可以与具体的过去时间连用的。具体的过去时间之所以可以与过去完成时连用,是因为只要这个具体的过去时间是表示“过去的过去”,就符合过去完成时态的根本使用原则——表示“过去的过去”之情况。比如这里的that morning是在asked这个过去的时间之前,所以出现that morning与过去完成时had left搭配使用的情形。

精品译文

一到酒店,她就立即打听从圣路易斯市来的巴雷特医生的消息。有人告诉她说,他在那天一早就回家了,再也不回来了。

2) Once there she sat silent and thinking for many days, then told us that when she was 18 she had loved a young medical student with all her heart.

妙语点睛

这里的had love发生在过去的动作told之前,所以用了过去完成时。

精品译文

有一次,她静静地坐着,呆呆地想了好几天,然后告诉我们说,她在18岁的时候曾经全心地爱过一个医学院的年轻学生。

3) ...she had immediately married, to show him that she did not care.

妙语点睛

这里的had married是相对于was而言的,发生在过去的动作was之前,所以用了过去完成时。

精品译文

……她很快就结了婚,以向他表示自己并不在意(两人间曾经的感情)。

4) She had never seen him since and then she had read in a newspaper that he was going to attend the old settlers' convention.

妙语点睛

含有since的主句中一般是用现在完成时态,但这里用了过去完成时had never seen,这是因为这里的since所表示的时间段不是到目前说话时为止,而是到当时为止——即她去世时为止。所以,要用过去完成时。

精品译文

从那以后,母亲就再也没有见过他了。后来,她在一份报纸上读到一则消息说,他要来参加那个居民聚会。

5) "Only three hours before we reached that hotel he had been there," she mourned.

妙语点睛

这里的had been是发生在过去的动作reached之前的,所以用了过去完成时。

精品译文

“就在我们到达那家酒店三个小时前他还在那里”,母亲哀伤地说道。

6) She had kept that pathetic burden in her heart 64 years without any of us suspecting it.

妙语点睛

这里的had kept是相对于was而言的,是在was之前持续了64年,所以用了过去完成时。

精品译文

从那以后的64年里,母亲心里一直有这么一个感情的疙瘩,可是我们谁也不知道。

7) She would write letters to school-mates who had been dead 40 years and wonder why they never answered.

妙语点睛

这里的had been dead是相对于过去的动作would write而言的,所以用了过去完成时。

精品译文

尽管她当时的那些校友去世都有40年了,但母亲依然经常给他们写信,并纳闷他们为什么从不回信。

下面来比较一篇文章,这篇文章讲的不是mother而是grandmother:

10 My Grandmother

My grandmother is a woman who used to crack Brazil nuts open with her teeth, a woman who once lifted a car off the ground, when there was an accident and it had to be moved. She has been representing her death as imminent ever since I've known her—twenty-five years—and has discussed, at length, the distribution of her possessions and her lamb coat. Every time we said goodbye, after our annual visit to Winnipeg, she'd weep and say she'd never see us again. But in the meantime, while every relative of her generation, and a good many of the younger ones, has died (usually nursed by her), she has kept making knishes, shopping for bargains, tending the healthiest plants I've ever seen.

妙语点睛

作者在文章的一开头用了一般现在时的is,向读者表明,他的祖母还没有去世,所以,说话的时间视角是“现在”,那么下文中要“回顾”过去的经历时,就自然会用到现在完成时态(比如has been, have known, has discussed, has died, has kept和has ever seen),而不可能出现过去完成时态。

精品译文

我的祖母

我的祖母年轻时,可以用牙齿嗑开巴西坚果;她还曾经把一辆汽车抬离地面,因为当时发生了交通事故,汽车必须挪动开。不过,自从我认识她这25年来,她就一直常常把死挂在嘴边,认为自己将不久于人世,而且还煞有其事地、十分认真地和大家商讨,在她死后,她的财产要如何分配,她的那件羔羊皮大衣该给谁。每年我们去温尼伯看望她后向她告别时,她总是流着泪说她再也见不到我们了。可这么多年来,尽管她那一辈的亲戚们都相继去世,甚至有好些比她还年轻的、她曾经照看过的亲戚先她而去,她老人家的身子依旧硬朗,还可以做煎饼、上街买东西、侍弄花草植物,而且她的花草养得比谁家的都好,是我见过的最茁壮的。

(三)

下面我再给出几个场景,读者可以体会一下过去完成时对一般过去时的这种依附关系。

11 场景一:当国会下院议员的感受

A: You have been a member of Parliament for five or six weeks now. Is it as you expected it to be?

B: I had an idea of what being a member of Parliament was like. I had been on a local authority for four years, and as a journalist and as a political activist I had visited the House of Commons, so it's more or less what I expected.

妙语点睛

在这段对话中,B一开始回答就用了一般过去时态had an idea,表示他以前就对当议员的生活有所了解,而不是在当上议员之后才知道的。后面他紧接着就解释他为什么会对议员的生活有了解,因为他自己以前曾经在(had been)一个政府机关(a local authority)工作过四年,并且常常拜访(had visited)国会下院。这里的had been和had visited都是基于前面的一般过去时态的had an idea基础上的一个更远的过去事件,所以都用了过去完成时态。也就是说,因为前文先有了had an idea,所以后文再往过去回顾就得用过去完成时had been和had visited。

但如果B是在做了五六个星期的议员后到现在才了解议员工作的,那么他就会用一般现在时态这样说:Since I have been a Member of Parliament for five or six weeks now, I have an idea of what being a member of Parliament is like.

言外之意,他以前对议员工作是不了解的。没有了一般过去时态作为时间参照,那么后文再对过去的事件进行陈述就无法用过去完成时态了,而应该改用一般过去时态。比如他会说:...I was on a local authority for four years and...I visited the House of Commons,...

但是,从前后两部分的逻辑关系来看,后文的had been和had visited是对前文的had an idea...的解释,如果改成一般现在时态后说成have an idea,那么后文的was和visited就与前文的have an idea在逻辑语义上没有联系了,因此也就无法对have an idea进行解释说明了。由此可见,时态在上下文语境中的灵活与正确的使用对于句义及话语的逻辑关系的表达是多么重要。

精品译文

A:你担任下院议员到现在已有五六个星期了,当议员和你以前所想象的是一样的吗?

B:我以前就知道当议员会是什么样的,因为我在当地的政府部门工作过四年,而且曾经以记者和政治活动家的身份与国会下院打过交道。所以,议员的工作跟我以前想象的差不多。

作者注:英国的国会叫做Parliament, the House of Commons是英国国会下议院,the House of Lords指英国国会上议院。

12 场景二:母羊如何辨认小羊羔

I had always wondered how the ewes knew their own lambs; now I learned that it was partly by voice, but chiefly by smell, looks not entering into it.

妙语点睛

在这句话中,had wondered同样是表示在learned之前的过去,即过去的过去,所以用了过去完成时态。如果后面说成now I learn that...,那么前面就得改为一般过去时态说成I always wondered...,因此整个句子就需要这样说:I always wondered how the ewes knew their own lambs; now I learn that it is partly by voice, but chiefly by smell, looks not entering into it.

精品译文

过去我一直不明白母羊是怎样认出自己生的羊羔的,后来我才知道,它们一方面是靠听声音来辨认,但主要是靠闻气味,根本就不用看长相。

13 场景三:大风吹毁花园

Yesterday the wind blew very hard. It had never blown that hard before. I knew when it first began that it would be bad for my garden. The plants that grew out in the open were hurt badly. Only a few which had already grown strong survived the windstorm. If I had only known, I would have planted them closer to my house.

妙语点睛

这里的yesterday就为下文定下了时间基调,所以才会出现has never blown和had already grown这样的过去完成时。

精品译文

昨天风很大,这是以前从来没有过的。一开始起风的时候我就知道,这下子我的花园可要遭殃了。园子里露天生长的花花草草被大风吹得惨不忍睹,只有那早些时候栽种的花草因为已经长大了,才在这次风暴中幸免于难。如果我早知道要刮风,我就会把它们种在离屋子近点的地方了。

前面讲过,过去完成时可以和过去的具体时间连用,而现在完成时态是不可以的。请看下面的短文:

14 The Call of the Wild

Sheba the shark floated just centimeters away from me. I could have reached out and touched her. Could have, that is, if the thick Plexiglas wall hadn't been there. The wall curved above my head, forming a tunnel through the aquarium. The tunnel allowed me to visit the home of Sheba and 3,000 other sea animals.

When my undersea tour had ended, I rode the escalator back to the mall. I felt a little strange. Moments ago, I'd been in the dark, beautiful world of the ocean floor. Now crowds of people and brightly lit stores surrounded me.

Located in Minnesota's Mall of America, Underwater Adventures offers visitors a virtual tour of the ocean floor. It does so in the convenience of a shopping center. This park is just one of many in the rapidly expanding world of animal parks.

妙语点睛

这里有moments ago这样的过去的具体时间,但它与过去完成时的I'd been in the dark, beautiful world of the ocean floor. 连用。

精品译文

野性的呼唤

鲨鱼示巴在离我就几厘米远的地方浮游。我本来伸手就能摸到她的。说“本来能够摸到”,那就是说如果没有一道厚厚的玻璃墙挡在我们中间的话。这层玻璃墙在我头顶上方是弯曲的,这样形成一个通道,直达水族馆。透过这个玻璃通道,我能看到示巴以及其他三千多种海洋动物生活的家园。

当我的海底之旅结束的时候,我乘坐电梯回到了购物中心。我感觉有点奇怪。就在刚才,我还在黑暗而美丽的海底世界中,而现在,我处在人群和灯火通明的商店的包围之中。

水下探险世界位于明尼苏达州的美国购物中心里,它让游客们享受到一次真正的海底之旅,而享受这样的旅行非常方便,因为水下探险世界就在购物中心里面。这个探险世界就是正在迅速增加的诸多动物园中的一个。

另外,by the time常常可以与过去完成时搭配使用,具体结构是:过去完成时+by the time+一般过去时。请看下面这个笑话:

15 A: It was my grandmother's birthday yesterday.

B: Is she old?

A: Well, by the time we lit up the last candle on her birthday cake, the first one had gone out!

妙语点睛

因为by the time本身的意思是“在……之前”,所以过去的动作lit之前发生了had gone out的动作,故用过去完成时态。

精品译文

A:昨天是我奶奶的生日。

B:她年纪很大吗?

A:哦,等我们点完她生日蛋糕上的最后一支蜡烛时,第一支蜡烛都已经烧完了!

最后,请读者做下面的这道2001年的考研题:

16 She felt suitably humble just as she________when he had first taken a good look at her, hair waved and golden, nails red and pointed.

A.had

B.had had

C.would have had

D.has had

正确答案 A。

妙语点睛

这道题有一定的难度,它考查考生对时态的掌握。首先看到这里主句的谓语felt是表示过去的时间。其次,时间状语从句when的谓语had taken是过去完成时。综合这两点,现在需要判断as引导的方式状语从句的谓语需要用什么时态。显然,as引导的从句的谓语动作发生在felt之前,故也需要用过去完成时态,因而可以排除C和D选项。而选项B即had had是一个完整的谓语,谓语动词是had,但该句中没有“had(有)”的意思。于是只能填A即had。

分析到这里,也许还是有读者不明白为什么要填A。其实,这里的A是一个省略形式,完整的谓语应该是had done,done可以省去。这里的done代替了felt。因此,真正的谓语是had felt,相当于说as she had felt humble,即表示“就像他当初见到她时,她感到谦卑那样”。

精品译文

她举止谦逊、得体,就像他当初见到她时,她所表现的那样。她的头发依然是波浪形、金黄色的,指甲涂成了红色,尖尖的。

从以上的分析可以看出,这道题其实是测试考生对过去完成时态的灵活运用。如果没有深厚的时态功底,这道题很难理解和答对。

 

思维总结

本小节的内容是过去完成时态的核心。在这里,我们强调了过去完成时态是一个不能独立存在的时态,它必须依附于一个一般过去时态,也就是说,要先有一般过去时态,才可能有过去完成时态。对此,读者应该真正地理解并灵活运用。

 

思维训练

Exercise 5.10.1

请用括号中动词的适当形式完成下面句子。

1.I_______(just, sit) down in the recliner to watch TV when I_________(hear) a knock on the door. When I_______(open) the front door I________(see) a young man standing there staring at me.

2.I_________(just, pour) myself a cup of tea when the phone_________(ring). When I__________(come) back from answering it, the cup__________(be) empty. Somebody__________(drink) the tea or________(throw) it away.

3.A: It's already 10 o'clock. I guess Bob and Amy won't be coming to the party.

B: They________(call) at nine to say that they_______(hold up).

用括号中动词的适当形式完成下面笑话故事:

4.Surgeon: How________the patient_______(be) since I_______(operate) on his heart?

Nurse: He is fine except that he seems to have a double heartbeat.

Surgeon: Ah, so that's where it's gone! I was wondering where I________(lose) my watch!

5.When her daughter________(arrive) home from a party, Mrs. Thompson asked her if she________(thank) her hostess. "No," she said. "The girl in front of me thanked her and the lady said 'Don't mention it' so I didn't."

6.Kenneth is so stupid. He phoned his teacher at school yesterday to say he couldn't come to school because he________(lose) his voice!

7.A: A beggar stopped me the other day and said he_________(not, have) a bite for days.

B: What did you do?

A: I bit him!

8.A: Mum! Mum! Dad_______(fall) over a cliff.

B: Is he okay?

A: I don't know. He_______(not, stop) falling when I left.

5.10.2 延续事件、重复事件和单一事件的过去完成时

现在完成时是站在“现在时间”的角度回顾过去。同理类推,过去完成时是站在“过去时间”的角度回顾更远的过去(The Past Perfect indicates "the past before the past"—what film-makers call a "flashback" in time.)即谈的是“过去的过去”的情况。这里同样涉及两个时间点:一个事件从更远的过去开始发生,然后“延续”到另一个较近的过去,或者“重复”到另一个较近的过去,或者在过去的某一时刻已经结束,这就分别构成了延续事件、重复事件和单一事件,完全类似于现在完成时,区别只是“坐标时间”由“现在”移至“过去”。因此,过去完成时态同样具有三种含义——延续事件、重复事件和单一事件。具体来说,过去完成时是用来表示在过去的某一时刻之前(即过去的过去)就已开始的动作,这一动作:

1.在该过去时刻仍然在继续,或在该过去时刻刚刚停止(延续性思维);

2.在该过去时刻之前的一段时间内重复的动作(重复性思维);

3.在该过去时刻之前的某一时刻停止的动作(单一事件)。

下面分别举例解释说明。

一、过去完成时表示“延续事件”

如同现在完成时,过去完成时可以表示开始于过去之前(即过去的过去)的动作或状态在过去这一时刻仍在持续。具体来说,就是表示一个动作或状态在过去的某一时间之前已经开始,这一动作或状态一直持续到这一过去时间,并且到这一过去时间还未结束并仍有可能继续持续下去。

图解:

(图中的虚箭头表示动作可能继续持续下去)

请看例句:

1 I had stayed in America for two years when he moved here.

妙语点睛

moved是过去的动作,stayed发生在moved之前,即过去的过去,并且在moved之后还将会继续下去,因此用过去完成时had stayed。

精品译文

他搬到美国时,我在这里已经生活了两年了。

2 I had learned 1,000 words by the end of last year.

妙语点睛

learned在过去的时间the end of last year之前已开始发生,到“去年年底”之后还将可能持续下去,因此用过去完成时had learned。

精品译文

到去年末,我已经学会了1,000个单词。

再比如,谈到学英语的时间,可以这么说:

3 We had studied English for six years when we entered college.

妙语点睛

studied在过去的动作entered之前已开始发生,并且继续延续,因此用过去完成时had studied。

精品译文

进入大学的时候,我们已经学了六年英语了。

当然,也可以谈一般的情况,此时when引导的从句的谓语可以用一般现在时态,那么主句就要改成现在完成时态了。比如说成:

4 We have studied English for six years when we enter college.

再来看其他例句:

5 A: It's already 10 o'clock. I guess Bob and Amy won't be coming to the party.

B: They called at nine to say that they'd been held up.

妙语点睛

现在的时间是10点,在9点钟这一过去的时间打电话时,Bob和Amy已经“有事被耽误了”,所以“被耽误”应该用过去完成时had been held up。

精品译文

A:现在已经10点了。我猜想鲍勃和艾米不会来参加聚会了。

B:他们9点钟来过电话说他们有事被耽误了,不来了。

6 Why Did the Easter Islanders Disappear?

Isolated in middle Pacific Ocean, Easter Island has attracted anthropologists ever since its discovery in 1772. This civilization had lived for 1,200 years on this small island. Who were they, and why did they sculpt those big stone heads with staring eyes?

妙语点睛

这里的过去完成时had lived一直持续到另外一个过去的时间its discovery in 1772。

精品译文

复活节岛上的居民为何消失了?

复活节岛位于太平洋中央,自从人们于1772年发现它以来,已经吸引了许多考古学家。该文明在这座小岛上延续了1,200年。他们是谁?他们为什么要雕刻那些大头、瞪眼的雕像?

或由上下文明确告知动作或状态持续到过去这一时刻即停止。

图解:

请看例句:

7 Former Japanese Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi, who had been in a coma(昏迷)for six weeks, died of a cerebral(大脑的)infarction(梗塞)at a Tokyo hospital.

日本前首相小渊惠三,在昏迷了长达六个星期后,因患脑梗塞死于东京的一家医院。

8 I had waited for her for two hours in such a severe winter when she eventually turned up, which of course drove me mad. 我在这样严寒的冬日里等了她两个小时,所以当她终于出现的时候,我当然气得要命

9 He had served in the army for ten years; then he retired and married. His children were now at school.

他当过10年兵,后来退伍并结了婚。他的孩子当时都在上学。

10 There had been fifty colleges in our city up till 1993. 到1993年时,我们的城市里已经有了50所大学

二、过去完成时表示“重复事件”

如同现在完成时,过去完成时可以表示在过去之前开始的动作,在过去之前的一段时间内重复发生

图解:

下面这篇短文谈到了著名影星奥黛丽·赫本(Audrey Hepburn):

11 In 1988, Audrey became a special ambassador to the United Nations UNICEF fund helping children in Latin America and Africa, a position she retained until 1993. She was named to People's magazine as one of the 50 most beautiful people in the world. Her last film was Always in 1989. Audrey Hepburn died on January 20, 1993 in Tolochnaz, Switzerland, from colon cancer. She had made a total of 31 high quality movies. Her elegance and style will always be remembered in film history as evidenced by her being named to Empire magazine's "The Top 100 Movie Stars of All Time".

妙语点睛

这里的过去完成时had made显然是表示过去重复的动作,且该动作只重复到过去,没有一直持续到现在,所以用过去完成时。读者可以将该句与5.5.1小节的有关汤姆·克鲁斯(Tom Cruise)的这个例句进行比较:He moved to New York and appeared in a few teen movies before starring in his first big hit, Top Gun in 1986. Since then he has made hit after hit movies.

因为阿汤哥现在还在世,因此他拍电影这一活动就可能一直重复到现在直至将来,所以这里要用现在完成时has made。

精品译文

1988年,奥黛丽·赫本成为了联合国儿童基金会的一名特殊的大使,致力于帮助拉丁美洲和非洲的儿童,她在这个职位上一直干到了1993年。她被《人物》杂志评为世界上50个最美丽的女人之一。她平生的最后一部影片是拍摄于1989年的《永远》。奥黛丽·赫本因患结肠癌,于1993年1月20日在瑞士的托洛那茨去世。她一生中共拍摄了31部高水平的影片,她的优雅和风格将永载电影史册。为此,她被《帝国》杂志评为“历史上最耀眼的100名影星”。

再来看一个关于2003年爆发的SARS的新闻报道:

12 Students at Northern Jiaotong University are welcomed with flowers after being discharged from quarantine yesterday afternoon in Beijing. Nearly 400 students were in isolation in a dormitory compound for a fortnight. More than 10 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases had been reported in the building before it was sealed off on April 24. No new cases were found during the isolation period. Quarantine measures were also lifted yesterday at a residential building of Beijing's Central University of Finance and Economics, where some 38 families had been isolated since April 24.

妙语点睛

在过去的动作was sealed off之前,reported的动作“重复”发生了十多次,即文中说的more than 10 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS),故该用过去完成时had been reported。另外,对于过去完成时had been isolated,既可能有延续的含义,也可能有重复的含义。这里出现了since,虽然与since搭配的主句一般是现在完成时态,但这里用了过去完成时态的had been isolated,因为“被隔离”只持续到上文出现的yesterday afternoon,而没有持续到现在。这里的yesterday afternoon就相当于一个过去的参照时间。

精品译文

昨天下午,北京的北方交通大学的学生们被解除了检疫隔离,受到了学校热烈的迎接。近400名学生在一座单独的宿舍楼中被隔离了两周。在该宿舍楼于4月24日被封锁之前,这里报告了十几个“非典”病例。在隔离期间,没有发现新的病例。北京的中央财经大学中的一座居民楼也于昨日解除了检疫隔离,自从4月24日起,这座楼里大约38户居民被隔离。

请看其他例句:

13 I had proposed to her five times, but she still refused to marry me. 我已经向她求婚五次了,但还是被拒绝

14 I had written her 100 letters when she finally promised to marry me.

我给她写了100封信,她最后终于答应嫁给我了。

15 Clint had written three letters by the time she arrived. 她到达的时候,克林特写了三封信

三、过去完成时表示“单一事件”

如同现在完成时,过去完成时可以表示开始于过去之前的动作到过去这一时刻之前即已停止。具体来说,就是表示一个动作或状态在过去的某一时间之前已经开始,并在这一过去的时间之前即告结束,而没有持续到这一过去的时刻。这时过去完成时的动作通常是短暂动作。

图解:

请看例句:

16 She had made everything ready before I came.

妙语点睛

这里made的动作在came之前已经完成,故用过去完成时had made。

精品译文

在我来之前,她已经把一切都准备好了。

17 Her baby had fallen asleep when she went into the room.

妙语点睛

这里fall的动作在went之前已经完成,故用过去完成时had fallen。

精品译文

她进房间时,孩子已经睡着了。

18 I had just poured myself a cup of tea when the phone rang. When I came back from answering it, the cup was empty. Somebody had drunk the tea or thrown it away.

妙语点睛

在过去的动作rang之前pour的动作已经完成,故用过去完成时had poured。同理,在过去的状态was empty之前drink和throw的动作已经完成,故两者都用过去完成时had drunk和(had)thrown。

精品译文

我刚刚给自己倒了一杯茶,这时电话铃响了。于是我去接电话,接完电话回来的时候,发现杯子空了。有人已经把茶喝了或者是倒掉了。

19 I had just sat down in the recliner to watch TV when I heard a knock on the door. When I opened the front door I saw a young man standing there staring at me.

妙语点睛

在过去的动作heard之前sat的动作已经完成,故用过去完成时had sat。

精品译文

我刚坐在躺椅上准备看电视的时候,听到有人敲门。打开前门,我看见一个年轻人站在门前凝视着我。

5.10.3 过去完成时的其他意义和用法

本节将来总结一下过去完成时的其他用法。

一、表示“非真实”的过去

主要是指intend, mean, hope, want, plan, suppose, expect, think, propose和wish等动词用于过去完成时,可表示过去未能实现的计划、设想、意图或希望等。请看例句:

1 I had intended to watch just one program, but somehow I couldn't make myself switch off the TV.

我本来打算只看一个电视节目,可不知怎的,电视打开之后我就关不了了。

2 I had intended to see you, but I was busy. 我本打算去看你,但是我太忙了

3 I had planned to go shopping with you, but my mother came to see me just when I was about to go.

我本打算和你一起去逛街,但正当我要出门的时候,我妈妈过来看我了。

4 She had hoped that he would come to date her, but he didn't show up.

她本来希望他能来约会她,但是他没露面。

5 They had hoped to see you off at the airport, but they got there too late.

他们本来希望去机场给你送行,但是他们到得太晚了。

6 A: Peter had hoped to have his apartment painted by this time.

B: But he hasn't even started yet, has he?

A:彼得本来是希望到现在已经把他的公寓粉刷完了。

B:可他不是还没有开始刷吗?

7 A: Are you glad you came to China?

B: Yes. Indeed. I'd considered going to Tokyo or Singapore, but I've never regretted my decision.

A:你来到中国之后感到高兴吗?

B:是的,非常开心。我本来是考虑去东京或新加坡的,但现在我从不后悔当初的决定。

二、用于最高级句型

这一点完全类似于我们在5.8节中讨论过的现在完成时的用法,即用在“It was the+序数词(first, second...)或最高级……that……”句型中。例如:

8 It was the third time that someone had interrupted me that night. 那是那天晚上我第三次被打断

9 On his next trip he arrived a little after seven in the morning. As a gift, he brought a big fish and a quart of the largest oysters I had ever seen. He said he had shucked them that morning before he left so that they'd be nice and fresh. I knew his bus left at 4:00 a. m. and I wondered what time he had to get up in order to do this for us.

妙语点睛

因为有过去时的bought表明是过去的时间,所以在最高级the largest的后面要用过去完成时态had seen。

精品译文

他再次来的时候,早上七点刚过就到了。为了答谢我们,他给我们带来了一条很大的鱼,还有一夸脱重的牡蛎,那是我所见过的最大的牡蛎。他说,他那天早上出发之前才把牡蛎去壳,这样能保持肉质鲜美。我知道他乘坐的公共汽车是凌晨4点启程的,那他究竟要多早起床为我们做这些事啊!

5.10.4 过去完成时与一般过去时的比较

比较1:两个或两个以上相继发生的动作,用and或but按动作发生的先后顺序连接,此时要用一般过去时,而不用过去完成时。过去完成时则强调主语在过去的某一时刻“回顾”更早的动作。具体来说,如果在谈论过去某一事件时,又想到在这之前已发生的某事,就要用过去完成时态。例如:

1 He opened the door and entered, but found nobody. 他打开门进去了,但一个人都没看见

请读者比较:

2 1) He served in the army for ten years; then retired and married. His children are now at school.

2) He had served in the army for ten years; then he retired and married. His children were now at school.

妙语点睛

在例句1)中,因为有了are表示现在的时间,作为现在的参照时间,所以在此之前的serve的动作,应该用一般过去时served。在例句2)中,因为有了were表示过去的时间,作为过去的参照时间,所以回顾在此之前的serve的动作,应该用过去完成时had served。

精品译文

1)他当过10年兵,然后退伍并结了婚。他的孩子现在都在上学。

2)他当过10年兵,后来退伍并结了婚。他的孩子当时都在上学。

3 He had served in the airforce for ten years before he died in the jet-crash incident.

妙语点睛

因为有了died表示过去的时间,作为过去的参照时间,所以回顾在此之前的serve的动作应该用过去完成时had served。

精品译文

在上次的坠机事故中他牺牲了,在那之前他在空军中服役了10年。

4 I heard voices and realized that there were several people in the next room.

我听见说话的声音,知道隔壁房间里有人。

5 I saw empty glasses and cigar butts on the table and realized that someone had been in the room.

我看见桌子上有空杯子和烟蒂,知道了屋子里有人来过。

6 I realized that we had met before.

我意识到我们以前见过面。

这里不说:I realized that we met before.*

比较2:在表示两个相继发生的动作时,用过去完成时可以表示一个动作完成以后,另一个动作才开始发生,从而使得两个动作相互独立,彼此脱离开来。用一般过去时,则可能表示一个动作“导致”另一个动作的发生,或两动作之间有一种因果关系。例如:

7 When I had opened all the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea.

不宜说:When I opened all the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea.*

我把所有的窗子都打开后,就坐下来喝了杯茶。

8 When I opened the window the cat jumped in.(比说When I had opened...更自然。)

我刚把窗子一打开,就有只猫跳了进来。

9 When I had written my letters I did some gardening.

不宜说:When I wrote my letters I did some gardening.*

我把信写完后,就到花园里干了些活。

10 When I wrote him a letter, he came at once. 我给他去了封信后,他立即就来了

11 When the singer had sung her song, she sat down. 这名歌手唱完歌以后,就坐下了

上面这句话若说成:When the singer sang her song, she sat down.

则可能给人造成这种印象:这位歌手喜欢坐着唱歌

 

思维训练

Exercise 5.10

请读者研读下面故事,并认真分析其中黑体部分的过去完成时态的含义。

Appointment with Love

Six minutes to six, said the clock over the information booth in New York's Grand Central Station. The tall, young Army lieutenant lifted his sunburned face and narrowed his eyes to note the exact time. His heart was pounding with a beat. In six minutes he would see the woman who had filled such a special place in his life for the past 13 months, the woman he had never seen, yet whose written words had sustained him unfailingly.

 

Lieutenant Blandford remembered one day in particular, during the worst of the fighting, when his plane had been caught in the midst of a pack of enemy planes. In one of his letters he had confessed to her that he often felt fear, and only a few days before this battle he had received her answer, "Of course you fear...all brave men do. Next time you doubt yourself, I want you to hear my voice reciting to you: Yeah, though I walk through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I will fear no evil, for thou are with me..." He had remembered, and it had renewed his strength.

 

Now he was going to hear her real voice. Four minutes to six.

 

A girl passed close to him, and Lieutenant Blandford started. She was wearing a flower, but it was not the little red rose they had agreed upon. Besides, this girl was only about 18, and Hopis Meynell had told him she was 30. "What of it?" he had answered. "I'm 32." He was 29.

 

His mind went back to that book he had read in the training camp. Of Human Bondage it was, and throughout the book were notes in a woman's handwriting. He had never believed that a woman could see into a man's heart so tenderly, so understandingly. Her name was on the bookplate: Hopis Meynell. He had got hold of a New York City telephone book and found her address. He had written, and she had answered. Next day he had been shipped out, but they had gone on writing.

 

For 13 months she had faithfully replied. When his letters did not arrive, she wrote anyway, and now he believed that he loved her and that she loved him.

 

But she had refused all his pleas to send him her photograph. She had explained, "If your feeling for me has any reality, what I look like won't matter. Suppose I'm beautiful. I'd always be haunted by the feeling that you had been taking a chance on just that, and that kind of love would disgust me. Suppose I'm plain (and you must admit that this is more likely), then I'd always fear that you were only going on writing because you were lonely and had no one else. No, don't ask for my picture. When you come to New York, you shall see me and then you shall make your decision."

 

One minute to six...he pulled hard on a cigarette. Then Lieutenant Blandford's heart leaped.

 

A young woman was coming toward him. Her figure was long and slim, her blond hair lay back in curls over her delicate ears. Her eyes were as blue as flowers, her lips and chin had a gentle firmness. In her pale-green suit, she was like springtime come alive.

 

He started toward her, forgetting to notice whether she was wearing rose or not, and as he moved, a small, provocative smile curved her lips.

 

"Going my way, soldier?" she murmured. He made one step closer to her. Then he saw Hollis Meynell.

 

She was standing almost directly behind the girl, a woman well past 40, her graying hair tucked under a worn hat. She was more than plump, her thick ankle feet were thrust into low-heeled shoes.

 

But she wore a red rose on her rumpled coat. The girl in the green suit was walking quickly. Blandford felt as though he were being split into two, so keen was his desire to follow the girl, yet so deep was his longing for the woman whose spirit had truly companioned and upheld his own, and there she stood. He could see her pale, plump face was gentle and sensible and her gray eyes had a warm twinkle.

 

Lieutenant Blandford did not hesitate. His fingers gripped the worn copy of Human Bondage, which was to identify him to her. This would not be love, but it would be something precious, a friendship for which he had been and must ever be grateful...

 

He squared his shoulders, saluted, and held the book out toward the woman, although even while he spoke he felt the bitterness of his disappointment. "I'm John Blandford, and you...you are Miss Meynell. May...may I take you to dinner?"

 

The woman smiled. "I don't know what this is all about, son," she answered. "That young lady in the green suit, she begged me to wear this rose on my coat. And she said that if you asked me to go out with you, I should tell you she's waiting for you in that restaurant across the street. She said it was some kind of a test."

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